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Jan 12

c. 80,000 - 70,000 BCE : Starting at the transition between the Middle to Upper Paleolithic period, some hunter-gatherers bands began to specialize, concentrating on hunting a smaller selection of (often larger than had previously been hunted) game and gathering a smaller selection of food. This specialization of work also involved creating specialized tools like fishing nets and hooks and bone harpoons.  Shaman practiced and guided others in reaching altered states of consciousness in order to encounter and interact with the divine.  Shaman used naturally occurring hallucinogenic substances and ritual ceremonies including chanting.

c. 10,200 BCE : The Neolithic Era, or New Stone age began. It was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.  The transition into the Neolithic period is chiefly defined by the unprecedented development of nascent agricultural practices. Agriculture originated and spread in several different areas including the Middle East, Asia, Mesoamerica, and the Andes beginning as early as 12,000 years ago

c. 8,000 BCE : People first began to farm in the Middle East in permanent villages.  Before farming, human population was limited by the natural food productivity of the environment.  Despite periodic crop failures, farmers found that most years they could produce more food than they needed for their families.  They could support more children and, with more hands, they could cultivate more land and produce even more food.  A succession of inventions including the plough, irrigation, metal tools, and selective breeding of crops and livestock lead to increased food surpluses and accelerated population growth.  Surplus food was the first form of wealth and it gave power to those who could control it.  Surplus food also allowed increasing numbers of people to be spared from farming to specialize in occupations such as craft production, warfare, trade or religion.

c. 7,000 BCE : Evidence of successful brain surgery

c. 5,000 BCE : The towns of Sumer (the flood plain of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers) in southern Mesopotamia meaning 'the land between the rivers' were the first civilization to practice intensive, year-round agriculture,  showing the use of core agricultural techniques, including large-scale intensive cultivation of land, mono-cropping, organized irrigation, and the use of a specialized labour force.

c. 4,500 BCE : As the complexity of Sumerian civilisation increased mental storage and verbal communication of information became inadequate and a means of recording and communicating information outside of the human mind was necessary.  Uruk on the Euphrates was first the site of early proto-writing.

c. 3,500 BCE : Writing was first used in the Sumerian city state of Uruk, which had a population of tens of thousands and had become the world's first city.

c. 3,500 BCE : Several small kingdoms began to form in Egypt as the Nile valley began to fill up with settlers fleeing desertification in the Sahara.  Competition for space in the narrow confines of the valley lead to stronger kingdoms taking over weaker ones.

3,150 BCE : The first of the dynastic pharaohs solidified their control over Lower Egypt by establishing a capital at Memphis, from which they could control the labor force and agriculture of the fertile delta region as well as the lucrative and critical trade routes to the Levant.

c. 3,100 BCE : Consolidation of power continued in the Nile valley and only two Egyptian kingdoms remained: Upper (southern) and Lower (northern).  By this time the Egyptians had begun to develop their hieroglyphics, but for several centuries this was used only for recording names and short lists.  As a result, the names of a few early kings of Upper Egypt are known, but little more.

c. 3,000 BCE : Narmer, King of Upper Egypt, conquered Lower Egypt and unified the Kingdom of Egypt for the first time.  Victory was commemorated on the Narmer Palette; on the palette in front of Narmer is a falcon, symbol of the sky god Horus, who was closely associate with Egyptian royalty.  The close association of Narmer and Horus probably means that the king was regarded as an incarnation of the god, thus the ideology of the divinity of Egyptian kings was established from the very beginning, displacing shamanism and the community practice of achieving altered states of consciousness.

c. 3,000 BCE : Each Sumerian city had its own independent government which was always based in a temple precinct.  A city's ruler was in theory its patron god.  The city itself was regarded as the property of the god, who, it was believed by the masses, actually dwelt in its temple.  In practice the government was headed by a priest who acted as earthly administrator of the god's estates.  Temples physically dominated Sumerian cities and acted as storehouses where surplus food, offered in the name of the city gods, was gathered before being re-distributed as rations to administrators and craft workers or traded for raw materials such as timber, stone and metals which were not available locally.

c. 3,000 BCE : First use of the shekel (a unit weight of barley) as currency in Mesopotamia.

c. 3,000 BCE : Humbaba, the ancient Sumerian guardian of the cedar forest, as well as Enkidu, the wild man of the forest in Sumerian mythology were green deities, often with some features in common with the famous Green Man, both of whom date back to at least BCE 3,000.

c. 2630 BCE : The first Egyptian pyramid was built soon after the accession of King Djoser.  Previously, Egyptian kings and nobles had been buried in mastabas (benches).  These were low flat roofed buildings, built of a mixture of mud brick (adobe) and stone, which contained a burial chamber.  As part of the ongoing consolidation of royal authority Djoser wanted a tomb which exalted the majesty of the king far above that of even his wealthiest subjects.  Djoser's pyramid architect was Imhotep, the first architect who's name is known to history, who was deified for his achievements.  Imhotep began Djosers pyramid as a huge mastaba, he then heightened by adding six further platforms, giving the building the steeped appearance from which it gets its popular name, the step pyramid.  Djoser was buried in a chamber under his pyramid.  A mummified foot found in the burial chamber, which was, like most Egyptian tombs, robbed in antiquity, is thought to be all that remains of the king.

c. 2,600 BCE : First logographic writing in Sumer city states; first records of Mesopotamian mythology and Egyptian religion.

c. 2,000 BCE : The epic of Gilgamesh, legendary king of Uruk, was composed.  Gilgamesh was famed for his strength and wisdom, his affair with Ishtar, the goddess of love and war, and his ultimately unsuccessful search for personal immortality.

c. 2,000 BCE : Salts left behind in Sumeria's poorly drained soils when irrigated water evaporated in hot sun eventually damaged soil fertility.  Crop yields reduced and Sumeria went into decline.  Primacy passed to the states of Babylon and Assyria in northern Mesopotamia, where higher rainfall meant that farmers relied less on irrigation.

c. 1,600 BCE : Writing of Egyptian text known as the Edwin Smith Papyrus on surgery, which is regarded as a copy of several earlier works.  The document is almost completely devoid of magical thinking and describes in exquisite detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments.  It shows that the heart, its vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, hypothalamus, uterus and bladder were recognized, and that the blood vessels were known to emanate from the heart. Other vessels are described, some carrying air, some mucus, and two to the right ear are said to carry the "breath of life", while two to the left ear the "breath of death"

c. 1,500 BCE : Beginning of Eleusinian Mysteries in Greece and the Isis and Osiris Mysteries in Egypt.

1,425 BCE : Egypt extended from Niya in north west Syria to the fourth waterfall of the Nile in Nubia, cementing loyalties and opening access to critical imports such as bronze and wood.  The New Kingdom pharaohs established a period of unprecedented prosperity by securing their borders and strengthening diplomatic ties with their neighbors. Military campaigns waged under Tuthmosis I and his grandson Tuthmosis III extended the influence of the pharaohs to the largest empire Egypt had ever seen.

c. 1,352 - 1,335 BCE : Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten meaning "living spirit of Aten" abandoned traditional Egyptian polytheism and introduced monotheistic worship centered on a solar deity named Aten.  After Akhenaten's death, traditional polytheistic religious practice was gradually restored.

c. 1,000 BCE : First MUL.APIN collection of Babylonian astronomy and astrology compiled.  Babylonian astronomers at some stage during the early 1st millennium BCE divided the ecliptic into twelve equal zones of 30 degrees celestial longitude  to create the first known celestial coordinate system (the Zodiac).

c. 1,000 BCE : According to traditional belief, early kabbalistic knowledge was transmitted orally by the Patriarchs, prophets, and sages (hakhamim in Hebrew), eventually to be "interwoven" into Jewish religious writings and culture. According to this view, early kabbalah was, in around the 10th century BC, an open knowledge practiced by over a million people in ancient Israel.  Foreign conquests drove the Jewish spiritual leadership of the time (the Sanhedrin) to hide the knowledge and make it secret, fearing that it might be misused if it fell into the wrong hands.  The Sanhedrin leaders were also concerned that the practice of kabbalah by Jews of the Jewish diaspora, unsupervised and unguided by the masters, might lead them into wrong practice and forbidden ways. As a result, the kabbalah became secretive, forbidden and esoteric to Judaism (Torat Ha’Sod תורת הסוד) for two and a half millennia.  Contemporary scholarship suggests that various schools of Jewish esotericism arose at different periods of Jewish history, each reflecting not only prior forms of mysticism, but also the intellectual and cultural milieu of that historical period. Answers to questions of transmission, lineage, influence, and innovation vary greatly.

753 BCE : Legendary founding of Rome  by Romulus on 21 April.

c. 700 BCE : Prometheus myth first appeared in Hesiod's poem Theogony.

671-667 BCE : The Assyrians began their invasion of Egypt under Esarhaddon.

650-600 BCE : According to Herodotus, the Lydians were the first people to introduce the use of gold and silver coins.

c. 600 BCE or earlier : Zoroastrianism (or Mazdaism) religion and philosophy, based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster (or Zarathustra), was founded in Greater Iran.  Mithra (or Mithras) is not mentioned by name in the Gathas, the oldest texts of Zoroastrianism and is generally attributed to Zoroaster himself.

530 BCE : Pythagoras started a secret religious society called the Pythagorean brotherhood devoted to the study of mathematics, from which Rosicrucianism and Freemasonry both claim to have evolved.

525 BCE : The Persians, led by Cambyses II, began their conquest of Egypt, eventually capturing the pharaoh Psamtik III at the battle of Pelusium. Cambyses II then assumed the formal title of pharaoh, but ruled Egypt from his home of Susa in Persia (modern Iran), leaving Egypt as a province.

380 BCE : Plato's Republic considered four regimes that exist in reality and tend to degrade successively into each other: timocracy, oligarchy (also called plutocracy), democracy and tyranny (also called despotism).

c. 400 BCE : Heraclides of Pontus said that the rotation of the Earth explained the apparent daily motion of the celestial sphere. Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius (CE 395–423) later described this as the "Egyptian System," stating that "it did not escape the skill of the Egyptians," though there is no other evidence it was known in ancient Egypt.

390 BCE : The non-geocentric model of the Universe was proposed by the Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus. According to Philolaus, there was at the center of the Universe a "central fire" around which the Earth, Sun, Moon and Planets revolved in uniform circular motion. This system postulated the existence of a counter-earth collinear with the Earth and central fire, with the same period of revolution around the central fire as the Earth. The Sun revolved around the central fire once a year, and the stars were stationary. The Earth maintained the same hidden face towards the central fire, rendering both it and the "counter-earth" invisible from Earth. The Pythagorean concept of uniform circular motion remained known to some for approximately the next 2000 years, and it was to the Pythagoreans that Copernicus referred to show that the notion of a moving Earth was neither new nor revolutionary.  Kepler gave an alternative explanation of the Pythagoreans' "central fire" as the sun, "as most sects purposely hid[e] their teachings".

360 BCE : Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias contained the earliest references to Atlantis.  For unknown reasons, Plato never completed Critias. Plato introduced Atlantis in Timaeus.

332 BCE : Alexander the Great conquered Egypt with little resistance from the Persians and was welcomed by the Egyptians as a deliverer. The administration established by Alexander's successors, the Ptolemies, was based on an Egyptian model and based in the new capital city of Alexandria.

c. 330 BCE :  Aristotle divides his own writings into two groups: the exoteric and the esoteric.

323–283 BCE : Euclid, often referred to as the "Father of Geometry" was active in Alexandria during the reign of Ptolemy I. His Elements is one of the most influential works in the history of mathematics, serving as the main textbook for teaching mathematics (especially geometry) from the time of its publication until the late 19th or early 20th century.  In the Elements, Euclid deduced the principles of what is now called Euclidean geometry from a small set of axioms. Euclid also wrote works on perspective, conic sections, spherical geometry, number theory and rigor.

c. 300 BCE : Human dissections were carried out by the Greek physicians Herophilus of Chalcedon and Erasistratus of Chios.  Before and after this time investigators appeared to largely limit themselves to animals.

c. 180 BCE :  Greek scholar, philosopher and librarian at Alexadria, Eratosthenes (276 BCE– 195 BCE), calculated the circumference of the earth using sun angles observed in a well at Syene (Aswan) and at Alexandria.  The result of approximately 25,000 miles compares to today's value of 24,860 statute miles over the poles.

c. 100-150 BCE : Construction of  the Antikythera mechanism in Greece an ancient mechanical computer designed to calculate astronomical positions.  Technological artifacts of similar complexity and workmanship did not reappear until the 14th century, when mechanical astronomical clocks were built in Europe.

67 BCE : According to Plutarch the pirates of Cilicia (a province on the southeastern coast of Asia Minor) were practicing "secret rites" of Mithras.

c. 50 BCE : A Mithras who was identified with the Greek Sun god Helios was among the gods of the syncretic Graeco-Iranian royal cult founded by Antiochus I of Commagene in the mid 1st century BCE.

c. 48 BCE : The ancient accounts by Plutarch, Aulus Gellius,Ammianus Marcellinus, and Orosius agree that Caesar accidentally burned the library down during his visit to Alexandria.  Whether the burned books were only some books found in storage or books found inside the library itself, the Roman stoic philosopher Seneca (c. 4 BC – AD 65) refers to 40,000 books having been burnt at Alexandria.

c. 44-27 BCE :  Several events are commonly proposed to mark the transition from Roman Republic to Empire, including Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator (44 BCE), the Battle of Actium (2 September 31 BCE), and the Roman Senate's granting to Octavian the honorific Augustus (16 January 27 BCE).

30 BCE : Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire, following the defeat of Mark Antony and Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII by Octavian (later Emperor Augustus) in the Battle of Actium.

37 - 4 BCE : Herod, an Idumaean whom the Roman Senate elected King of the Jews, ruled over Idumea, Galilee, Judea, Samaria and neighboring lands.

c. 15 BCE : Roman architect Vitruvius wrote De architectura (English: On architecture, published as Ten Books on Architecture) is a treatise on architecture dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus, as a guide for building projects.  It is also the prime source of the famous story of Archimedes and his bath-time discovery.  Vitruvius wrote about theoretical issues concerning architecture.  For instance, in Book 2 of De architectura, he advises architects working with bricks to familiarise themselves with pre-Socratic theories of matter so as to understand how their materials will behave.  Book 9 relates the abstract geometry of Plato to the everyday work of the surveyor.  Astrology is cited for its insights into the organisation of human life, while astronomy is required for the understanding of sundials.  Vitruvius is famous for asserting that a structure must exhibit the three qualities of firmitas, utilitas, venustas – that is, it must be solid, useful, beautiful. These are sometimes termed the Vitruvian virtues or the Vitruvian Triad. According to Vitruvius, architecture is an imitation of nature.  As birds and bees built their nests, so humans constructed housing from natural materials, that gave them shelter against the elements. When perfecting this art of building, the Greeks invented the architectural orders: Doric, Ionic and Corinthian. It gave them a sense of proportion, culminating in understanding the proportions of the greatest work of art: the human body. This led Vitruvius in defining his Vitruvian Man, as drawn later by Leonardo da Vinci: the human body inscribed in the circle and the square (the fundamental geometric patterns of the cosmic order).

c. 75 CE : The unique underground temples or Mithraea appear suddenly in the last quarter of the 1st century AD.  The mysteries of Mithras appear to be a distinct product of the Roman Imperial religious world with their epicentre in Rome.

c. 100 CE : Plutarch, a Greek scholar who lived from 46 CE to 120 CE, wrote Isis and Osiris, which is considered a main source about the very late myths about Isis.  In it he writes of Isis, describing her as: "a goddess exceptionally wise and a lover of wisdom, to whom, as her name at least seems to indicate, knowledge and understanding are in the highest degree appropriate..." Plutarch also asserted in his book that during his visit to Egypt, Pythagoras received instruction from the Egyptian priest Oenuphis of Heliopolis.

c. 150 CE : Ptolemy wrote The Almagest, a mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths.  It's geocentric model was accepted by mainstream science for more than twelve hundred years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.

158 CE : Earliest dated use of the sun god Sol invictus (Invincible Sun)  in Rome.

c. 200 CE : The historical origin of the Kabbalistic Sefer Yetzirah (Book of Formation or Book of Creation) was placed by Reitzenstein in the 2nd century BCE.  According to Christopher P. Benton, the Hebrew grammatical form places its origin closer to the period of the Mishna around the 2nd century CE.  Jewish Lore attributes it to Adam and that from Adam it passed over to Noah, and then to Abraham, the friend of God.

274 CE :  Roman emperor Aurelian made Sol Invictus ("Invincible Sun") the official sun god of the later Roman Empire, alongside the traditional Roman cults.  The god was favored by emperors after Aurelian and appeared on their coins until Constantine.  It is commonly claimed that the date of December 25th for Christmas was selected in order to correspond with the Roman festival of Dies Natalis Solis Invicti, or Birthday of Sol Invictus.

325 CE : The First Council of Nicaea in Bithynia (present-day İznik in Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I to attain consensus in the church through an assembly representing all of Christendom.  Canon 8 of the Council states "...[I]f those called Cathari come over [to the Catholic faith], let them first make profession that they are willing to communicate [share full communion] with the twice-married, and grant pardon to those who have lapsed..."  This is likely a reference to Catharism a Christian religious movement with dualistic and gnostic elements that later appeared in the Languedoc region of France and other parts of Europe in the 11th century.

325/326 CE : Constantine's official coinage ceases to bear images of Sol Invictus.

387 CE : The last inscription referring to the Roman sun god Sol Invictus was made, although there were enough devotees in the 5th century that Augustine found it necessary to preach against them.

c. 400 CE : Roman Mithraism declined with the rise to power of Christianity, until the beginning of the fifth century, when Christianity became strong enough to exterminate by force rival religions such as Mithraism.

c. 650 CE : Christian Adoptionist sect and militarized revolt movement, the Paulicans were established.  They were accused by medieval sources as being Gnostic and quasi Manichaean Christian. They flourished until 872 in Armenia and the Eastern Themes of the Byzantine Empire. According to medieval Byzantine sources, the group's name was derived after the third century Bishop of Antioch, Paul of Samosata.

661 CE : Muslim conquests of the Levant, including Jerusalem,which began in 632 was completed.

c. 950 CE : The Bogomil Gnostic social-religious movement originated in Bulgaria as a reaction against state and clerical oppression of Byzantine church.  It was also strongly influenced by the Paulicians who had been chased out of Armenia.  The movement spread quickly in the Balkans, gradually expanding throughout the Byzantine Empire and later reaching Kievan Rus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Dalmatia, Italy, France, and England.  In spite of all measures of repression, it remained strong and popular until the fall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in the end of the 14th century.

c. 1,000 CE : Esoteric teachings of the Kabbalah began in Hachmei Provence (Southern France) and Spain.

1096–1099 : The First Crusade was a military expedition by Roman Catholic Europe to regain the Holy Lands ultimately resulting in the recapture of Jerusalem.  Godfrey of Bouillon became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, although he refused the title "king" as he said that title (i.e., "King of Jerusalem") belonged to God.

1100 : On 25 December Balwin I, brother of Godfrey of Bouillon, was crowned the first king of Jerusalem.

1113 : Pope Paschal II issued a papal bull confirming the foundation of the Order of the Hospitallers (Knights Hospitaler) by the Blessed Gerard.

c. 1112 : Hugues de Payens collected eight of his knight relatives, the knights set up headquarters on the southeastern side of the Temple Mount, inside the Al Aqsa Mosque, as guests of Balwin I. Since the Temple Mount was supposed to be the site of biblical King Solomon's Temple the Order took the name The Knights of the Temple of King Solomon, which later became abbreviated to Knights Templar.

1128 : January, The Knights Templar were officially recognised and incorporated as a religious military order. Hugues de Payen was given the title of Grand Master.  The ceremony took place at a church council at Troyes, court of the count of Champagne, Hugues de Payen’s liege lord.  Saint Bernard, abbot of Clairvaux and the age’s chief spokesman for Christendom was the guiding spirit.

1139 : A Papal Bull was issued by Pope Innocent II a former Cistercian monk at Clairvaux and protege of Saint Bernard. According to this Bull, the Templars would owe allegiance to no secular or ecclesiastical power other than the pope himself. In other words, they were rendered totally independent of all kings, princes and prelates, and all interference from both political and religious authorities. They had become, in effect, a law unto themselves, an autonomous international empire.

c. 1175 : The Templars’ interests extended beyond war, diplomacy and political intrigue. In effect they created and established the institution of modern banking. By lending vast sums to destitute monarchs they became the bankers for every throne in Europe and for certain Muslim potentates as well. With their network of preceptories throughout Europe and the Middle East, they also organised, at modest interest rates, the safe and efficient transfer of money for merchant traders, a class which became increasingly dependent upon them. Money deposited in one city, for example, could be claimed and withdrawn in another, by means of promissory notes inscribed in intricate codes. The Templars thus became the primary money-changers of the age, and the Paris preceptory became the centre of European finance.  It is even probable that the cheque, as we know and use it today, was invented by the Order.

1187 : Jerusalem was wrested from the Crusaders by Saladin who permitted Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city.

1202 : Fibonacci (Leonardo of Pisa) wrote Liber Abaci, which introduced the Fabonacci sequence to Western European mathematics, although the sequence had been described earlier in Indian mathematics and appears to have been known to the ancient Greeks and Egyptians.  The Fabonnaci sequence occurs repeatedly in nature.

1209 : Albigensian Crusade begins suppression of Cathari heresy.

1243 : From May 1243 to March 1244, the Cathar fortress of Montségur was besieged by the troops of the seneschal of Carcassonne and the archbishop of Narbonne. On 16 March 1244, a large and symbolically important massacre took place, where over 200 Cathar Perfects were burnt in an enormous fire at the prat dels cremats near the foot of the castle.

c. 1250 – 1305 : Life of Moses de León, a Spanish rabbi and Kabbalist who is thought of as the composer of the Kabbalistic text, the Zohar. It is a matter of controversy if the Zohar is his own work, or that he committed traditions going back to Rabbi Shimon bar Yohai in writing.  A story tells that after the death of Moses de Leon, a rich man of Avila named Joseph offered Moses' widow (who had been left without any means of supporting herself) a large sum of money for the original Zohar from which her husband had made the copy. She confessed that her husband himself was the author of the work. She had asked him several times, she said, why he had chosen to credit his own teachings to another, and he had always answered that doctrines put into the mouth of the miracle-working Shimon bar Yochai would be a rich source of profit.

1307 :  October 13, at dawn scores of French Templars were simultaneously arrested by agents of King Philip IV of France, later to be tortured  into admitting heresy including homosexual acts, and to the worship of heads and the idol Baphomet.

1312 : After the Council of Vienne, and under extreme pressure from King Philip IV, Pope Clement V (a childhood friend of King Philip's) issued an edict officially dissolving the Order of the Kinights Templar.  Much of the Templar property outside of France was transferred by the Pope to the Knights Hospitaller, and many surviving Templars were also accepted into the Hospitallers.

1321 : The last known Cathar perfectus in the Languedoc, Guillaume Bélibaste, was executed.

1381 : Wat Tyler's peasants revolt in England specifically targeted Knights Hospitaler property and members for destruction.  While destroying Hospitallier property the rebels protected property originally owned by the Templars.  Rolls and records in what had been the principal church of the Knights Templar in England were removed from the building before being destroyed, avoiding any damage to the church itself.

c. 1400 : The Halliwell Manuscript, also known as the Regius Poem (the first known Masonic text) was written.  The poem begins by evoking Euclid and his invention of geometry in ancient Egypt and then the spreading of the art of geometry in "divers lands." This is followed by fifteen points for the master concerning both moral behaviour (do not harbour thieves, do not take bribes, attend church regularly, etc.) and the operation of work on a building site (do not make your masons labour at night, teach apprentices properly, do not take on jobs that you cannot do etc.).

1414 : Vitruvius' De architectura, was rediscovered by the Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini, who found it in the Abbey of St Gallen, Switzerland. He publicized the manuscript to a receptive audience of Renaissance thinkers, just as interest in the classical cultural and scientific heritage was reviving.  The rediscovery of Vitruvius' work had a profound influence on architects of the Renaissance, prompting the rise of the Neo-Classical style.  Renaissance architects, such as Niccoli, Brunelleschi and Leon Battista Alberti, found in De architectura their rationale for raising their branch of knowledge to a scientific discipline as well as emphasising the skills of the artisan.

1430 : January 10,  The Order of the Golden Fleece was established  by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in celebration of the prosperous and wealthy domains united in his person that ran from Flanders to Switzerland. It is restricted to a limited number of knights, initially 24 but increased to 30 in 1433, and 50 in 1516, plus the sovereign.

c. 1440 : The printing press was first used in the Holy Roman Empire by the German Johannes Gutenberg,  based on existing screw presses

1452 – 1519 : Life of Leonardo da Vinci, Italian Renaissance polymath: painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer whose genius, perhaps more than that of any other figure, epitomized the Renaissance humanist ideal.

1453 : The capture of Constantinople (and two other Byzantine splinter territories soon thereafter) marked the end of the Roman Empire, a state which had lasted for nearly 1,500 years; it was also a massive blow to Christendom.

1456 : September 20, William Sinclair, 1st Earl of Caithness, began construction of Rosslyn Chapel (which includes Hermetic, Knights Templar and Freemasonic symbology) although it is often recorded as 1446. The confusion over the building date comes from the chapel's receiving its founding charter to build a collegiate chapel in 1446 from Rome. Sinclair did not start to build the chapel until he had built houses for his craftsmen.

c. 1497 : De Divina Proportione (About the divine proportions) the famous book on mathematics was written by Luca Pacioli  in Milan.  The subject was the hither to 'secret' mathematical and artistic proportions from the Pythagorean, Platonic and Euclidean tradition and the book was illustrated by Leonardo da Vinci.  Today only two versions of the original manuscript are believed still to exist.

1500 : Printing presses in operation throughout Western Europe had already produced more than twenty million volumes

1513 : Niccolò Machiavelli published a version of The Prince, a political treatise using a Latin title, De Principatibus (About Principalities).

1516 :  Johann Tetzel, a Dominican friar and papal commissioner for indulgences, was sent to Germany by the Roman Catholic Church to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Roman Catholic theology stated that faith alone, whether fiduciary or dogmatic, cannot justify man; justification rather depends only on such faith as is active in charity and good works (fides caritate formata) can justify man.  The benefits of good works could be obtained by donating money to the church.

1517 : Jerusalem and environs fell to the Ottoman Turks, who generally remained in control until 1917.

1517 : October 31, Martin Luther wrote to his bishop, Albert of Mainz, protesting the sale of indulgences. He enclosed in his letter a copy of his Disputation of Martin Luther on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences, which came to be known as The Ninety-Five Theses. Hans Hillerbrand writes that Luther had no intention of confronting the church, but saw his disputation as a scholarly objection to church practices, and the tone of the writing is accordingly "searching, rather than doctrinaire." Hillerbrand writes that there is nevertheless an undercurrent of challenge in several of the theses, particularly in Thesis 86, which asks: "Why does the pope, whose wealth today is greater than the wealth of the richest Crassus, build the basilica of St. Peter with the money of poor believers rather than with his own money?"

1518 : January, friends of Luther translated his 95 Theses from Latin into German, printed, and widely copied them, making the controversy one of the first in history to be aided by the printing press.  Within two weeks, copies of the theses had spread throughout Germany; within two months throughout Europe.

1532 : The printed version of  The Prince was published, five years after Machiavelli's death, with the permission of the Medici pope Clement VII.

1532 : Breaking the power of Rome in England proceeded slowly. A lawyer and Freemason who was a supporter of Anne Boleyn, Thomas Cromwell, brought before Parliament a number of acts including the Supplication against the Ordinaries and the Submission of the Clergy, which recognised Royal Supremacy over the church. Following these acts, Thomas More resigned as Chancellor, leaving Thomas Cromwell as Henry VIII's chief minister.

1534 : The Act of Supremacy declared that the King was "the only Supreme Head in Earth of the Church of England" and the Treasons Act 1534 made it high treason, punishable by death, to refuse to acknowledge the King as such.  In response to the excommunications, the Peter's Pence Act was passed in and it reiterated that England had "no superior under God, but only your Grace" and that HenryVIII's "imperial crown" had been diminished by "the unreasonable and uncharitable usurpations and exactions" of the Pope.

1534 : August 15, Ignatius of Loyola and six other students at the University of Paris — Francisco Xavier from Navarre (modern Spain), Alfonso Salmeron, Diego Laínez, Nicolás Bobadilla from Spain, Peter Faber from Savoy, and Simão Rodrigues from Portugal — met in Montmartre outside Paris, in a crypt beneath the church of Saint Denis, now Saint Pierre de Montmartre.  They called themselves the Company of Jesus, and also Amigos en El Señor or Friends in the Lord, because they felt "they were placed together by Christ".  The name had echoes of the military (as in an infantry company), as well as of discipleship (the "companions" of Jesus). The word "company" comes ultimately from Latin, cum + pane = with bread, or a group that shares meals.

1537 : Ignatius of Loyola and other members of the Company of Jesus traveled to Italy to seek papal approval for their order.  Pope Paul III gave them a commendation, and permitted them to be ordained priests. These initial steps led to the founding of what would be called the Society of Jesus later in 1540. The term societas in Latin is derived from socius, a partner or comrade.

1539 : April, the Great Bible was first published.  The Great Bible was the first authorized edition of the Bible in English, authorized by King Henry VIII of England to be read aloud in the church services of the Church of England. The Great Bible was prepared by Myles Coverdale, working under commission of Sir Thomas Cromwell, Secretary to Henry VIII and Vicar General. In 1538, Cromwell directed the clergy to provide "one book of the bible of the largest volume in English, and the same set up in some convenient place within the said church that ye have care of, whereas your parishioners may most commodiously resort to the same and read it."  The Great Bible includes much from the Tyndale Bible, with the "objectionable" features revised.

1540 : September 27,  after months of dispute, a congregation of cardinals reported favorably upon the Constitution presented by Ignatius of Loyola, and Paul III confirmed the order through the bull Regimini militantis ecclesiae ("To the Government of the Church Militant"), but limited the number of its members to sixty. This is the founding document of the Jesuits as an official Catholic religious order.

1543 : Copernicus published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres describing planets rotating around the sun, superseding  the previously accepted earth centered model of the universe.  The 'science' of astrology, which was based on a geocentric universe began to lose credibility and subsequently its academic and theoretical standing.

1543 : March 14, the limitation of 60 Jesuit members was removed through the bull Injunctum nobis.  Ignatius of Loyola was chosen as the first superior-general. He sent his companions as missionaries around Europe to create schools, colleges, and seminaries.

1568 : The Bishops' Bible was first published.  The Bishop's Bible is an English translation of the Bible which was produced under the authority of the established Church of England. It was substantially revised in 1572, and this revised edition was to be prescribed as the base text for the Authorized King James Version of 1611.

1599 : First (?) record of a masonic lodge is that of the lodge at Kilwinning, Scotland in the Second Schaw Statutes.

1600 : February 17, Giordano Bruno, was burned at the stake after the Roman Inquisition found him guilty of heresy for his pantheism.  Bruno was an Italian Dominican friar, philosopher, mathematician and astronomer. His cosmological theories went beyond the Copernican model in proposing that the Sun was essentially a star, and moreover, that the universe contained an infinite number of inhabited worlds populated by other intelligent beings.  After his death he gained considerable fame, particularly among 19th- and early 20th-century commentators who, focusing on his astronomical beliefs, regarded him as a martyr for free thought and modern scientific ideas.

1611 : Translation of the King James Bible by the Church of England (begun in 1604) was completed. First printed by the King's Printer Robert Barker, this was the third official translation into English.  The work was undertaken in response to the perceived problems of the earlier translations as detected by the Puritans, a faction within the Church of England.

1614 : The first anonymous public document on the Rosicrucian Order "Fama Fraternitatis Rosae Crucis" appeared in Kassel, Germany, introducing the pilgrim founder "Frater C.R.C".  In 1615 "Confessio Fraternitatis" appeared and in 1616  the "Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz" appeared in Strasbourg which disclosed for the first time the founder's name as Christian Rosenkreutz (English: Christian RoseCross).

1616 : Robert Fludd (prominent English Paracelsian physician, astrologer, mathematician, cosmologist and Qabalist) defended Rosicrucian philosophy in the Apologia Compendiaria.

1628 : Francis Bacon published New Atlantis, which portrays a world run by a secret university (invisible college).

1646 : October 16, Alias Ashmole, celebrated antiquary, politician, officer of arms, astrologer, student of alchemy and founding member of The Royal Society was made a Freemason.

1659 : About ten years after John Dee's death, the antiquarian Robert Cotton purchased land around Dee's house and began digging in search of papers and artifacts. He discovered several manuscripts, mainly records of Dee's angelic communications. Cotton's son gave these manuscripts to the scholar Méric Casaubon, who published them in 1659, together with a long introduction critical of their author, as A True & Faithful Relation of What passed for many Yeers between Dr. John Dee (A Mathematician of Great Fame in Q. Eliz. and King James their Reignes) and some spirits.  As the first public revelation of Dee's spiritual conferences, the book was extremely popular and sold quickly. Casaubon, who believed in the reality of spirits, argued in his introduction that Dee was acting as the unwitting tool of evil spirits when he believed he was communicating with angels. This book is largely responsible for the image, prevalent for the following two and a half centuries, of Dee as a dupe and deluded fanatic.  Around the same time the True and Faithful Relation was published, members of the Rosicrucian movement claimed Dee as one of their number.

1649 - 1660 : According to John Noorthouk in the 1784 Book of Constitutions of the Premier Grand Lodge of London, Jacobite King Charles II (older brother and predecessor to James II) was made a Freemason in the Netherlands during his years in exile.

1660 : Founding of The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, known as the Royal Society,  it was granted a Royal Charter by King Charles II as the "Royal Society of London".  The Royal Society started from groups of physicians and natural philosophers, meeting at variety of locations, including Gresham College in London. They were influenced by the "new science", as promoted by Francis Bacon in his New Atlantis.  The Society today acts as a scientific advisor to the British government, receiving a parliamentary grant-in-aid. The Society acts as the UK's Academy of Sciences, and funds research fellowships and scientific start-up companies.

1663: June 22, Galilei Galileo (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was found "vehemently suspect of heresy", namely of having held the opinions that the Sun lies motionless at the centre of the universe, that the Earth is not at its centre and moves, and that one may hold and defend an opinion as probable after it has been declared contrary to Holy Scripture. He was required to "abjure, curse and detest" those opinions.  He was sentenced to formal imprisonment at the pleasure of the Inquisition.  On the following day this was commuted to house arrest, which he remained under for the rest of his life.  His offending Dialogue was banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future.

c. 1664 : René Descartes, who dedicated much time to the study of the pineal gland, called it the "principal seat of the soul."He believed that it was the point of connection between the intellect and the body.

1687 : Sir Isaac Newton who has been considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived, published his monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, which lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws, by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation, thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution.

1694 : Bank of England established

1717 : June 24, St John the Baptists day.  The first grand lodge of freemasonry, the Grand Lodge of England, was founded.  Freemasons had become the establishment in England.

1719 : The first Hellfire Club was founded in London, by Philip, Duke of Wharton.  The most infamous club associated with the name was established in England by Sir Francis Dashwood, and met from around 1749 to around 1760, and possibly up until 1766.  The club motto was Fais ce que tu voudras (Do what thou wilt), which was later used by Aleister Crowley.

1734 : Benjamin Franklin became Grand Master of the Pennsylvania Freemasons Lodge.

1736 : Pope Clement XII issued the first papal prohibition on Freemasonry.

1737 :  Andrew Michael Ramsay wrote his: Discourse "Pronounced at the Reception of Freemasons by Monsieur de Ramsay, Grand Orator of the Order", also known as "Ramsay's Oration", in which he said "...our Order formed an intimate union with the Knights of St.John of Jerusalem.  From that time our Lodges took the name of Lodges of St.John." and "Yes, sirs, the famous festivals of Ceres at Eleusis, of Isis in Egypt, of Minerva at Athens, or Urania amongst the Phoenicians, of Diana in Scythia were connected with ours.  In those places mysteries were celebrated which concealed may vestiges of the ancient religion of Noah and the Patriarchs."

1742 : Karl Gotthelf, Baron von Hund claimed that, in Paris, he was initiated, by Scottish knights, into the Order of the Knights Templar, and later met the pretender to the British throne, Prince Charles Edward Stuart as the Grand Master of the Knights Templar. Hund claimed to have been appointed by these unknown superiors of the Templars as commander in chief (Provincial Grand Master) of the Order of Province VII (Germany).  As proof, he presented an encoded military chief patent, which remains undeciphered. Hund wrapped himself in silence and in more detailed inquiries repeatedly underlined his discretion with respect to the unknown superiors, who had supposedly charged him with the revival of the Templar Order in Germany. Hund's relationship to the alleged French Templar Order is unclear, and his surviving diary entries give little information.

1751 : Karl Gotthelf, Baron von Hund founded the Rite of Strict Observance branch of Freemasonry.

1776 : May 1, Weishaupt founds the Order of the Illuminati with an original membership of five. The Order is secret, hierarchical and modeled on the Jesuits. The original name for the Order was uncertain: Perfectibilists and Bees were both considered, but Weishaupt settled on Illuminati - chosen, perhaps, because of the image of the sun radiating illumination to outer circles.  The Order was, therefore, always represented in communications between members as a circle with a dot in the center ☉ This symbolic imagery - the point within a circle, the Perfectibilists and the Bees - is also reflective of Weishaupt's fascination with Eleusinian and Pythagorean Mysteries; no doubt learning of this early on having access to Ickstatt's considerable library.

1777 : Weishaupt is initiated into Freemasonry, in Munich, at the Lodge Theodore of Good Counsel. By the middle of 1779, Weishaupt's "Insinuators" had completely wrestled control of the Lodge and it was regarded as part of the Order of the Illuminati.

1778 : 4 April, Voltaire was initiated into Freemasonry the month before his death.   He accompanied his close friend Benjamin Franklin into Loge des Neuf Soeurs in Paris and became an Entered Apprentice Freemason.

1779 : July, Weishaupt's "Insinuators" had completely wrestled control of the Lodge and it was regarded as part of the Order of the Illuminati.

1779-1781 : Benjamin Franklin served as Grand Master of the Free-masonic Lodge Les Neuf Sœurs.

1780 : July, Baron von Knigge is initiated into the Bavarian Illuminati.  Knigge was connected to the court of Hesse-Cassel and a prominent Strict Observance freemason. He subsequently restructured the Order and recruited many prominent members: the notion of restricting the field of recruiting solely to the young was abandoned, and this phase of the propaganda was widened so as to include men of experience whose wisdom and influence might be counted upon to assist in attaining the objects of the order.

1782 : During the Wilhelmsbad Congress the self-styled Knights [Eques] of Templar Strict Observance were ostensibly abolished, and Karl Gotthelf's Unknown Superiors declared a fraud. Two systems emerged triumphant: Willermoz’s Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte [Order of Knights, Beneficent of the Holy City] (C.B.C.S.), and especially the Bavarian Illuminati. Both Landgrave Karl von Hessen-Kassel and the Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, the two heads of the Strict Observance and indeed German Freemasonry as a whole, were recruited into the Illuminati soon after; and it was because of the contacts (and good impression) made at the Congress of Wilhelmsbad that the Illuminati truly became a formidabe power throughout Europe.

1784 : Largely due to Knigge's circle of influence, the Bavarian Illuminati had between two and three thousand members.

1785 : The Bavarian Illuminati were suppressed by the Bavarian government for allegedly plotting to overthrow all the kings in Europe and the Pope to boot.

1789 : May, the French Revolution began with the convocation of the Estates-General. The first year of the Revolution saw members of the Third Estate proclaiming the Tennis Court Oath in June, the assault on the Bastille in July, the passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen in August, and an epic march on Versailles that forced the royal court back to Paris in October. The next few years were dominated by tensions between various liberal assemblies and a right-wing monarchy intent on thwarting major reforms.

1789 : December 27, after travelling from England to Rome, where he met two people who proved to be spies of the Inquisition, Cagliostro was arrested and imprisoned in the Castel Sant'Angelo. Soon afterwards he was sentenced to death on the charge of being a Freemason. The Pope changed his sentence, however, to life imprisonment in the Castel Sant'Angelo. After attempting to escape he was relocated to the Fortress of San Leo where he died not long after.

1793 :  William Blake wrote "The Marriage of Heaven and Hell" in which the figure represented by Satan is virtually the hero rebelling against an imposter authoritarian deity.

1793-1794 : Internally, popular sentiments radicalized the French Revolution significantly, culminating in the rise of Maximilien Robespierre and the Jacobins and virtual dictatorship by the Committee of Public Safety during the Reign of Terror  during which between 16,000 and 40,000 people were killed.

1795 : After the fall of the Jacobins and the execution of Robespierre, the Directory assumed control of the French state.

1797 : Abbé Augustin Barruel, a French Jesuit priest published Memoirs Illustrating the History of Jacobinism in French.  In the book, Barruel claims that the French Revolution was the result of a deliberate conspiracy or plot to overthrow the throne, altar and aristocratic society in Europe. The plot was allegedly hatched by a coalition of philosophes, Freemasons, and the Order of the Illuminati. The conspirators created a system that was inherited by the Jacobins who operated it to its greatest potential. The Memoirs purports to expose the Revolution as the culmination of a long history of subversion. Barruel was not the first to make these charges but he was the first to present them in a fully developed historical context and his evidence was on a quite unprecedented scale.

1798 : The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798 through J. Johnson (London).  The author was soon identified as The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus. While it was not the first book on population, it has been acknowledged as the most influential work of its era. Its 6th Edition was independently cited as a key influence by both Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in developing the theory of natural selection.  A key portion of the book was dedicated to what is now known as Malthus' Iron Law of Population – this name itself is retrospective, based on the iron law of wages, which is the reformulation of Malthus' position by Ferdinand Lassalle, who in turn derived the name from Goethe's "great, eternal iron laws" in Das Göttliche.  This theory suggested that growing population rates would contribute to a rising supply of labour that would inevitably lower wages. In essence, Malthus feared that continued population growth would lend itself to poverty.

1798 : Freemason George Washington wrote in a letter to the Reverend G. W. Snyder (24 October).  "It was not my intention to doubt that, the Doctrines of the Illuminati, and principles of Jacobinism had not spread in the United States. On the contrary, no one is more truly satisfied of this fact than I am."

1798 : Brothers Moses Marcus Warburg and Gerson Warburg  founded the M. M. Warburg & Co. banking company in 1798 that is still in existence.

1799 : The Directory was replaced as the controlling entity of the French State by the Consulate under Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon was described as a "deist with involuntary respect and fondness for Catholicism."He never believed in a living God; Napoleon's deity was an absent and distant God,  but he pragmatically considered organised religions as key elements of social order, and especially Catholicism, whose, according to him, "splendorous ceremonies and sublime moral better act over the imagination of the people than other religions"

1799 : Pierre-Francois Bouchard, of the French expedition to Egypt rediscovered the Rosetta Stone.  Because it presents essentially the same text in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, Demotic script, and Ancient Greek (with some minor differences between them), it provided the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs.  As the first ancient bilingual text recovered in modern times, the Rosetta Stone aroused widespread public interest with its potential to decipher the hitherto untranslated Ancient Egyptian language.

1808 : William Blake published And Did Those Feet In Ancient Time, a short poem from the preface to his epic Milton a Poem.   Today it is best known as the anthem "Jerusalem", with music written by Sir Hubert Parry in 1916.

 c.1809 : William Blake, in his notes to "A Vision of the Last Judgment", wrote "Men are admitted into Heaven not because they have governd their Passions or have No Passions but because they have Cultivated their Understandings. The Treasures of Heaven are not Negations of Passion but Realities of Intellect from which All the Passions Emanate in their Eternal Glory."

1811 : N M Rothschild & Sons (more commonly known simply as Rothschild) the private investment banking company, belonging to the Rothschild family was founded in the City of London.  It is now a global firm with 50 offices around the world.

1826 : William Morgan, a resident of Batavia, New York,  was arrested, kidnapped by 3 Masons (Loton Lawon, Nicholas Chesebro and Edward Sawyer) and disappeared  (presumed murdered) after announcing his intention to publish a book exposing Freemasonry's "secrets".  He ignited a powerful movement against the Freemasons.  The events sparked a public outcry and inspired Thurlow Weed, a New York politician, to muster discontent and form the new Anti-Masonic Party, which was also opposed to future President Andrew Jackson who was known to be a Mason.

1828 : The Anti-Masonic party fielded William Wirt as its US presidential candidate, but he received only seven electoral votes.  On that campaign, other Jackson rivals, including John Quincy Adams, joined in denouncing the Masons.

1828 : Andrew Jackson was elected US president.  Jackson, a rich slaveholder, supported a small and limited federal government.  He strengthened the power of the presidency, which he saw as spokesman for the entire population, as opposed to Congressmen from a specific small district.  He was supportive of states' rights, but during the Nullification Crisis, declared that states do not have the right to nullify federal laws.  Strongly against the national bank, he vetoed the renewal of its charter and ensured its collapse.  Whigs and moralists denounced his aggressive enforcement of the Indian Removal Act, which resulted in the forced relocation of thousands of Native Americans to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma).  Historians acknowledge his protection of popular democracy and individual liberty for United States citizens, and criticize him for his support for slavery and for his role in Indian removal.

1830 : Joseph Smith, Jr. who's older brother was a Freemason, published the Book of Mormon, a foundational religious book, which is  generally considered to reflect prevailing anti-Masonic sentiment in New York State by condemning what it portrays as oath-bound conspiratorial organizations.  In late 1830, Smith envisioned a "city of Zion", a Utopian city in Native American lands near Independence, Missouri.

1835 : The Anti-Masonic party had become moribund everywhere but Pennsylvania, as other issues, such as slavery, became the focus of US national attention.

1842 : March, Joseph Smith Jr. and several prominent Mormons had become Freemasons and founded a lodge in Nauvoo, Illinois. Soon after joining Freemasonry, Smith introduced a new temple "Endowment" ceremony including a number of symbolic elements that were essentially identical with their analogues within Freemasonry. Smith remained a Freemason until his death.  Mormon temple worship shares an extensive commonality of symbols, signs, vocabulary and clothing with Freemasonry, including robes, aprons, handshakes, ritualistic raising of the arms, etc.

1843 : October 13, The B'nai B'rith was founded in Aaron Sinsheimer's café on New York City's Lower East Side, by 12 recent German Jewish immigrants led by Henry Jones. The new organization represented an attempt to organize Jews on the basis of their ethnicity, not their religion, and to confront what Isaac Rosenbourg, one of the founders, called "the deplorable condition of Jews in this, our newly adopted country"

1860 : Eliphas Lévi (born Alphonse Louis Constant) published Histoire de la Magie, (The History of Magic).  In which he writes "The transcendental science, the absolute science is assuredly Magic... The masses are not in need of absolute truths; were it otherwise progress would be arrested and life would cease in humanity; the ebb and flow of contrary ideas, the clash of opinions, the passions of time, ever impelled by its dreams are necessary to the intellectual growth of peoples.  The masses know it full well and hence they desert so readily the chair of doctors to collect about the rostrum of mountebacks... It was the memory of this scientific and religious absolute, of this doctrine summarised in a word, of this word alternatively lost and recovered , which was transmitted to the elect of all antique initiations.  Whether preserved or profaned in the celebrated Order of the Temple, it is the same memory handed on to secret associations of Rosicrucians, Illuminati and Freemasons, which gave a meaning to their strange rites, to their less or more conventional signs , and a justification above all to their devotion in common, as well as a clue to their power."

1872 : Albert Pike's "Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry" was published.  Morals and Dogma is a book of esoteric philosophy published by the Supreme Council, Thirty Third Degree, of the Scottish Rite, Southern Jurisdiction of the United States.  Pike is still regarded in America as an eminent and influential Freemason.

1873 : While attending Oriel College, Cecile Rhodes became a Freemason in the Apollo University Lodge. Although initially he did not approve of the organisation, he continued to be a Freemason until his death in 1902. The failures of the Freemasons, in his mind, later caused him to envisage his own secret society with the goal of bringing the entire world under British rule.

1882 : Edmond de Rothschild cut back on his purchases of art and began to buy land in Palestine.  He became a leading proponent of the Zionist movement, financing the first site at Rishon LeZion. In his goal for the establishment of a Jewish homeland, he promoted industrialization and economic development.

1884 : Fabian Society founded, it  was named in honour of the Roman general Fabius Maximus who's strategy advocated tactics of harassment and attrition rather than head-on battles.  The organisations emblem was a wolf in sheep's clothing.  Immediately upon its inception, the Fabian Society began attracting many prominent contemporary figures drawn to its socialist cause, including George Bernard Shaw, H. G. Wells, Annie Besant, Graham Wallas, Hubert Bland, Edith Nesbit, Sydney Olivier, Oliver Lodge, Leonard Woolf and Virginia Woolf, Ramsay MacDonald and Emmeline Pankhurst.

1889 : Andrew Carnegie wrote "Wealth", more commonly known as "The Gospel of Wealth",  it described the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich. The central thesis of Carnegie's essay was the peril of allowing large sums of money to be passed into the hands of persons or organizations ill-equipped mentally or emotionally to cope with them.  As a result, the wealthy entrepreneur must assume the responsibility of distributing his fortune in a way that it will be put to good use, and not wasted on frivolous expenditure. In this he represented a captain of industry who had risen to power by his own hand and refused to worship.

1889 : John D. Rockefeller (Senior's) interest in philanthropy on a large scale began, influenced by Andrew Carnegie's published essay, The Gospel of Wealth, which prompted him to write a letter to Carnegie praising him as an example to other rich men.  It was in that year that he made the first of what would become $35 million in gifts, over a period of two decades, to fund the University of Chicago.

1895 : The London School of Economics and Political Science (informally the London School of Economics or LSE) was Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb and George Bernard Shaw.

1895 : Cecil Rhodes, South African agent of the Rothschilds, established a secret society whose avowed purposes was as follows : “In the end Great Britain is to establish a power so overwhelming that wars must cease and the Millennium be realized.” To achieve this goal, he left $150 million to the Rhodes Trust.

1898 : H.G. Wells published The War of the Worlds, a science fiction novel which comprises the first-person narrative of an unnamed protagonist's (and his brothers) adventures in London and the countryside around London as Earth is invaded by Martians. Written in 1895–97, it is one of the earliest stories that details a conflict between mankind and an extraterrestrial race.

1899 : The Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland, also known as the British Zionist Federation or simply the Zionist Federation, was established to campaign for a permanent homeland for the Jewish people. The Zionist Federation is an umbrella organisation for the Zionist movement in the United Kingdom, representing more than 120 organisations, and over 50,000 affiliated members.

1902 : The Rhodes Trust was established under the terms and conditions of the will of Cecil John Rhodes, and funded by his estate under the administration of Nathan Rothschild.  Rhodes Scholarships are administered and awarded by the Rhodes Trust, which are awarded to applicants annually.  Bill Clinton was a Rhodes scholar.

1902 : Stanford President David Starr Jordan originated the notion of "race and blood" in his racial epistle "Blood of a Nation," in which the university scholar declared that human qualities and conditions such as talent and poverty were passed through the blood.

1902 : The Socialist “X” Club had been founded in New York by John Dewey, whose Socialist program has dominated American education during the twentieth century. The other founders of the “X” Club were James T. Shotwell, founder of the League of Nations, United Nations etc.; Morris Hillquit, Communist candidate for Mayor of New York, Charles Edward Russell, and Rufus Weeks, vice president and managing director of New York Life, which was controlled by J.P. Morgan.

1904 : The Carnegie Institution established a laboratory complex at Cold Spring Harbor on Long Island that stockpiled millions of index cards on ordinary Americans, as researchers carefully plotted the removal of families, bloodlines and whole peoples. From Cold Spring Harbor, eugenics advocates agitated in the legislatures of America, as well as the nation's social service agencies and associations.

1905 : Walter Lippman  founded the American branch of the Fabian Society as the Intercollegiate Socialist Society, which later became the Students for a Democratic Society after a period when it was known as the League for Industrial Democracy; James T. Shotwell and other internationalists worked with Lippmann on this organization.

1906 :  The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching was chartered in by an act of the United States Congress its primary activities of research and writing have resulted in published reports on every level of education.

1909 : The soon to be British Prime Minister Lloyd George claimed, in 1909, that Lord Nathan Rothschild was the most powerful man in Britain.

1910 : November, Paul Warburg, at Jeckyl Island, directed the secret proceedings and wrote the primary features of what would be called the Aldrich Plan, which served as the basis for the foundation of the U.S. Federal Reserve System.  Attendees included, Senator Nelson W. Aldrich and Assistant Secretary of the U.S. Treasury Department A. Piatt Andrew, and 5 more of the country's leading financiers, who together represented about one-fourth of the world's wealth.

1911 : The Carnegie Corporation of New York was established by Andrew Carnegie in 1911 "to promote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding".  The corporation influenced state education ever since.

1913 : December 23, The Federal Reserve Act set up the Federal Reserve System, the central banking system of the United States of America, and granted it the legal authority to issue Federal Reserve Notes (now commonly known as the U.S. Dollar) and Federal Reserve Bank Notes as legal tender. The Act was signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.

1915 : Dr. Jakob Ruchti said "History cannot be permanently falsified; the myth cannot stand up to the scrutiny of research; the sinister web will be brought into the light and torn to pieces, however artfully it has been spun."

1916 : Fundamental Laws, A Report on the 68th Convocation of the Rose Cross Order is published.  The volume explains the outer public teachings of the Rosicrucians but not the "inner work".  The outer public teachings say that Mexico must become part of the US; the Great Seal of the US is described as symbolic of Illuminati soul science.

1917 : The British Army captured Jerusalem from the Ottoman Empire.

1917 : Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Division of Intercourse and Education, New York, Municipal Banquet, Publication No. 15, The Imperial Japanese Mission - John Dewey, Professor of Philosophy in Columbia University, said "Some one remarked that the best way to unite all the nations on this globe would be an attack from some other planet. In the face of such an alien enemy, people would respond with a sense of their unity of interest and purpose. We have the next thing to that at the present time. Before a common menace, North and South America, the Occident, and Orient have done an unheard of thing, a wonderful thing, a thing which, it may well be, future history will point to as the most significant thing in these days of wonderful happenings. They have joined forces amply and intimately in a common cause with one another and with the European nations which were most directly threatened. What a few dreamers hoped might happen in the course of some slow coming century has become an accomplished fact in a few swift years. In spite of geographical distance, unlike speech, diverse religion, and hitherto independent aims, nations from every continent have formed what for the time being is nothing less than a world state, an immense cooperative action in behalf of civilization."

1917 : November 2, The Balfour Declaration was a letter from the United Kingdom's Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour to Baron Rothschild (Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild), a leader of the British Jewish community, for transmission to the Zionist Federation of Great Britain and Ireland.  "His Majesty's government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country."  The statement was issued through the efforts of Chaim Weizmann and Nahum Sokolow, the principal Zionist leaders based in London; as they had asked for the reconstitution of Palestine as "the" Jewish national home, the declaration fell short of Zionist expectations.

1917 - 1918 : A working fellowship of about 150 scholars, called "The Inquiry" was tasked to brief President Woodrow Wilson about options for the postwar world when Germany was defeated.

1919 : May 30, The Council on Foreign Relations Handbook of 1936 states, “On May 30, 1919, several leading members of the delegations to the Paris Peace Conference met at the Hotel Majestic in Paris to discuss setting up an international group which would advise their respective governments on international affairs. The U.S. was represented by Gen. Tasker H. Bliss (Chief of Staff, U.S. Army), Col. Edward M. House, Whitney H. Shepardson, Dr. James T. Shotwell, and Prof. Archibald Coolidge. Great Britain was unofficially represented by Lord Robert Cecil, Lionel Curtis, Lord Eustace Percy, and Harold Temperley. It was decided at this meeting to call the proposed organization the Institute of International Affairs."

1919 : June 5, The Council on Foreign Relations Handbook of 1936 states, "At a meeting on June 5, 1919, the planners decided it would be best to have separate organizations cooperating with each other. Consequently, they organized the Council on Foreign Relations, with headquarters in New York, and a sister organization, the Royal Institute of International Affairs, in London, also known as the Chatham House Study Group, to advise the British Government. A subsidiary organization, the Institute of Pacific Relations, was set up to deal exclusively with Far Eastern Affairs. Other organizations were set up in Paris and Hamburg, the Hamburg branch being called the Institut fur Auswartige Politik, and the Paris branch being known as Centre d’Etudes de Politicque Etrangere, at 13 Rue de Four, Paris VI.” The Hamburg branch was established, of course, because of the Warburg family bank there."

1922 : The League of Nations at the Conference of Lausanne entrusted the United Kingdom to administer the Mandate for Palestine, the neighbouring mandate of Transjordan to the east across the River Jordan, and the Iraq Mandate beyond it.

1922 : The Lucifer Publishing Company incorporated in the United States in 1922 by Alice Bailey and her husband , to act as a fiduciary trust for the publishing of twenty-four books of esoteric philosophy published under Alice Bailey's name, and to fund and administer activities concerned with the establishment of "right human relations". These include the Arcane School, a school for esoteric training, World Goodwill, Triangles, a lending library, The Beacon magazine, as well as the publishing company.

1922 : The American Eugenics Society (AES) was a society established to promote eugenics in the United States.  It was the result of the Second International Conference on Eugenics (New York, 1921).  The organization started by promoting racial betterment, eugenic health, and genetic education through public lectures, exhibits at county fairs etc.

1924 : Edmond de Rothschild established the Palestine Jewish Colonization Association (PICA), which acquired more than 125,000 acres (50,586 ha) of land and set up business ventures.

1924 : Nesta Helen Webster (Mrs. Arthur Webster), published Secret Societies and Subversive Movements, which traced the Illuminati's plot for global domination.  She argued that the secret society's members were occultists, plotting communist world domination, using the idea of a Jewish cabal, the Masons and Jesuits as a smokescreen.

1924 : June 24, Lloyd George told the N.Y. Journal American “The international bankers dictated the Dawes reparations settlement.  The Protocol which was signed between the Allies and Associated Powers and Germany is the triumph of the international financier.  Agreement would never have been reached without the brusque and brutal intervention of the international bankers. They swept statesmen, politicians and journalists to one side, and issued their orders with the imperiousness of absolute monarchs, who knew that there was no appeal from their ruthless decrees. The settlement is the joint ukase of King Dollar and King Sterling. Dawes report was theirs. They inspired and fashioned it. The Dawes Report was fashioned by the Money Kings.  The orders of German financiers to their political representatives were just as peremptory as those of allied bankers to their political representatives.”

1925 : The Lucifer Publishing Company changed name in 1925 to the Lucis Publishing Company (Lucis trust).

1928 : Edward Bernays book "Propaganda" was published.  Bernays argued that the manipulation of public opinion was a necessary part of democracy: "The conscious and intelligent manipulation of the organized habits and opinions of the masses is an important element in democratic society. Those who manipulate this unseen mechanism of society constitute an invisible government which is the true ruling power of our country. ...We are governed, our minds are molded, our tastes formed, our ideas suggested, largely by men we have never heard of. This is a logical result of the way in which our democratic society is organized. Vast numbers of human beings must cooperate in this manner if they are to live together as a smoothly functioning society. ...In almost every act of our daily lives, whether in the sphere of politics or business, in our social conduct or our ethical thinking, we are dominated by the relatively small number of persons...who understand the mental processes and social patterns of the masses. It is they who pull the wires which control the public mind."

1929 : September, D.H. Lawrence published his novella, "The Escaped Cock" (later re-printed under the title "The Man Who Died") in which Jesus survives the cross and finds true redemption in the sex act with Mary Magdalene who is explicitly identified as a priestess of Isis.  Lawrence also associates Jesus with the dying and rising god Osiris.

1929 : A grant of $317,000 from the Rockefeller Foundation allowed the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute's for Brain Research institute to construct a major building and take center stage in German race biology. The institute received additional grants from the Rockefeller Foundation during the next several years.  Leading the institute was Hitler's medical henchman Ernst Rüdin.  Rüdin's organization became a prime director and recipient of the murderous experimentation and research conducted on Jews, Gypsies and others.

1932 : Aldous Huxley's Brave New World was published. Set in London of AD 2540 (632 A.F. in the book), the novel anticipates developments in reproductive technology and sleep-learning that combine to change society. The future society is an embodiment of the ideals that form the basis of futurology.

1932 : H.G. Wells  told Young Liberals at the University of Oxford that progressive leaders must become liberal fascists or enlightened Nazis in order to implement their ideas.

1933 : March 9, The Emergency Banking Relief Act was passed, which allows only Federal Reserve approved banks to operate in the United States of America.  It was an act of the United States Congress spearheaded by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the Great Depression, the act was introduced to a joint session of Congress and was passed the same evening amid an atmosphere of chaos and uncertainty as over 100 new Democratic members of Congress swept into power determined to take radical steps to address banking failures and other economic malaise. The act was one of Mr. Roosevelt's first projects in the 100 days. The sense of urgency was such that the act was passed with only a single copy available on the floor and most legislators voted on it without reading it

1933 : March 11, US Congressman Long said to Congress "That is the equity of what we are about to do. Yes; you are going to close us down. Yes; you have already closed us down, and have been doing it long before this year. Our President says that for 3 years we have been on the way to bankruptcy. We have been on the way to bankruptcy longer than 3 years. We have been on the way to bankruptcy ever since we began to allow the financial mastery of this country gradually to get into the hands of a little clique that has held it right up until they would send us to the grave."

1933 : March 13, US Congressman Patman said to Congress "I want to show you where the people are being imposed upon by reason of the delegation of this tremendous power. I invite your attention to the fact that section 16 of the Federal Reserve Act provides that whenever the Government of the United States issues and delivers money, Federal Reserve notes, which are based on the credit of the Nation--they represent a mortgage upon your home and my home, and upon all the property of all the people of the Nation--to the Federal Reserve agent, an interest charge shall be collected for the Government."

1933 : April 25, The US leaves the gold bullion standard, as per Franklyn D. Roservelt's announcement 6 days earlier.

1933 : June 16, The Banking Act of 1933 was enacted; it was a law that established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) in the United States and imposed banking reforms, several of which were intended to control speculation.  It is often referred to as the Glass–Steagall Act, after its Congressional sponsors, Senator Carter Glass (D) of Virginia, and Representative Henry B. Steagall (D) of Alabama.

1933 : 25 August, the Transfer Agreement between Adolf Hitler and an organization of Zionist Jews was made, which made Hitler the chief economic sponsor of the state of Israel.  A sweeping, worldwide economic boycott of Germany by Jews helped spur a deal between the Nazis and Zionists.  The transfer agreement was not widely known or talked about until Edwin Black published 'The Transfer agreement' in 1984.

1933 : November 21, President F. D. Roosevelt wrote to Col. Edward Mandell House "The real truth of the matter is, as you and I know, that a financial element in the larger centers has owned the Government ever since the days of Andrew Jackson — and I am not wholly excepting the Administration of W. W. The country is going through a repetition of Jackson's fight with the Bank of the United States — only on a far bigger and broader basis."

1935 : The Great Seal, originally designed in 1782, was added to the US dollar bill's design.

1936 : The British Fabian Society plan to take over the world by the City of London financial community was first published in a book entitled "All These Things" by a New Zealand author and journalist, A. N. Field.  The document, called "Freedom and Planning" was secretly circulated in 1932 by the inner councils of the members of the Political Economic Plan, otherwise known as "P.E.P." in London.  The then chairman of the organization was a City of London Jew, Israel  Moses Sieff, who was the reputed author of the plan.  Mr Sieff was also chairman and financier of Marks and Spencer's' chain stores and vice-president of the British Zionist Society.   The plan involved the subtle transfer of the entire productive capacity of each country throughout the world into a series of great "State-owned" departments, which would then be "corporatized", then "privatized" to City of London Corporation International banks and corporations which they control.  Individual property ownership would be severely restricted, with most of the land, sea, fisheries, rivers, lakes, ports, railways, communications, media, roads, electricity, energy, food, water, waste management, housing, farms, commercial property, schools, hospitals, police, social welfare, Inland Revenue etc. transferred into statutory corporations, companies or land trusts which indirectly would be owned by City of London banks.  Similar to the experiment carried out in the in the USSR, the whole world would eventually be transferred into a Communist "United  Nations" World Soviet Socialist Republic, where each country would be "regionalized" and ruled through "Regional Councils" through a United Nations dictatorship called a "Parliamentary Assembly" which would be just another name for a Soviet "Central Committee" ­ and all independent, sovereign, national governments would be totally abolished.

1938 : October 30, The War of the Worlds episode of the American radio drama anthology series The Mercury Theatre on the Air was broadcast. Directed and narrated by actor and future filmmaker Orson Welles, the episode was an adaptation of H. G. Wells's novel The War of the Worlds.  The first two thirds of the 60-minute broadcast were presented as a series of simulated news bulletins, which suggested to many listeners that an actual alien invasion by Martians was currently in progress.  Compounding the issue was the fact that the Mercury Theatre on the Air was a sustaining show (it ran without commercial breaks), adding to the program's realism.  Although there were sensationalist accounts in the press about a supposed panic in response to the broadcast, the precise extent of listener response has been debated.  In the days following the adaptation, however, there was widespread outrage and panic by certain listeners who had believed the events described in the program were real. The program's news-bulletin format was described as cruelly deceptive by some newspapers and public figures, leading to an outcry against the perpetrators of the broadcast.

1940 : January, H.G. Wells published his book The New World Order.  Wells expressed the idea that a new world order should be formed to unite the nations of the world in order to bring peace and end war.

1941 : The name "United Nations", was first used by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt  in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers.

1943 : January 7, Nicola Tesla died from heart thrombus, alone in room 3327 of the New Yorker Hotel.  Soon after his death  Tesla's papers and other property were impounded by the United States' Alien Property Custodian office in Tesla's compound at the Manhattan Warehouse, even though he was a naturalized citizen.  After the FBI was contacted by the War Department, his papers were declared to be top secret. The personal effects were sequestered on the advice of presidential advisers; J. Edgar Hoover declared the case most secret, because of the nature of Tesla's inventions and patents.

1944 : July 22, Preparing to rebuild the international economic system as World War II was still raging, 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations gathered at the Mount Washington Hotel in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, for the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference. The delegates deliberated during July 1-22, 1944, and signed the Agreement on its final day.  This arrangement, known as the Bretton Woods agreement, pegs the value of the U.S. Dollar to a fixed amount of gold. The dollar/gold peg is set at $35 per ounce. This arrangement officially earns the U.S. Dollar the title of world reserve currency, as it replaces the British Pound as the international medium of exchange. The gold-backing to the U.S. dollar helps to restore global financial confidence thereby bringing much needed calm to the tumultuous economic era.  By making the U.S. Dollar easily convertible into gold, it is soon considered "as good as gold."  Despite this arrangement, it is still illegal for American citizens to own gold.

1945 : May 22, decision made to bring Nazi scientists to the US (Operation Paperclip) after victory over Germany in World War 2.

1946 : Moses Warburg's great-great grandson, Siegmund George Warburg, founded the investment bank S. G. Warburg & Co in London in 1946.

1946 : The Tavistock Institute was founded by a group of key figures at the Tavistock Clinic , funded by a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.  Kurt Lewin, a member of the Frankfurt school in America, was an important influence on the work of the Tavistock, according to Eric Trist, who expresses his admiration for Lewin in his autobiography.  Many of the founding members of the Tavistock Institute went on to play major roles in psychology. John Rawlings Rees became first president of the World Federation for Mental Health.  Jock Sutherland became director of the new post-war Tavistock Clinic, when it was incorporated into the newly established British National Health Service in 1946. Ronald Hargreaves became deputy director of the World Health Organization.

1947 : November 29, the General Assembly of the United Nations adopted a resolution recommending the adoption and implementation of the United Nations partition plan of Mandatory Palestine, on 14 May 1948

1948 : May 14, David Ben-Gurion, the Executive Head of the World Zionist Organization and president of the Jewish Agency for Palestine, declared the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel, to be known as the State of Israel, a state independent upon the termination of the British Mandate for Palestine, 15th May, 1948.

1949 : George Orwell's distopian novel "1984" was published, which described a policy of control by propaganda, surveillance, misinformation, denial of truth, and manipulation of the past.

1949 : French occultist and student of sacred geometry, René Adolphe Schwaller de Lubicz published his book The Temple In Man, which resulted from  his 15-year study of the art and architecture of the Temple of Luxor in Egypt.  The Temple In Man proposed, and argued in great detail, for an interpretation of the Egyptian outlook rooted in numerology and sacred geometry; in several of his other works, he makes a corresponding case for the metaphysical richness of various mathematical concepts.

1950 : February 17, James Warburg in an appearance before the U.S. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations said, "We shall have world government, whether or not we like it.  The question is only whether world government will be achieved by consent or by conquest."

1951 : The American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) was founded by Isaiah L. "Si" Kenen as a lobbying group to advocate pro-Israel policies to the Congress and Executive Branch of the United States.  Kenen originally ran the American Zionist Committee for Public Affairs as a lobbying division of the American Zionist Council. Before that, Kenen was an employee of the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

1951 : August 16, the inhabitants of Pont-Saint-Esprit were suddenly racked with frightful hallucinations of terrifying beasts and fire.  Time magazine wrote "Among the stricken, delirium rose: patients thrashed wildly on their beds, screaming that red flowers were blossoming from their bodies, that their heads had turned to molten lead."  In 2012 an American investigative journalist, H P Albarelli Jr, uncovered evidence suggesting the CIA peppered local food with the hallucinogenic drug LSD as part of a mind control experiment at the height of the Cold War.  The scientists who produced both alternative explanations,  Albarelli wrote, worked for the Swiss-based Sandoz Pharmaceutical Company, which was then secretly supplying both the Army and CIA with LSD.

1954 : May 29 to May 31 original Bilderberg conference was held at the Hotel de Bilderberg, near Arnhem in the Netherlands.  According to Wikipedea the guest list was drawn up by inviting two attendees from each nation, one of each to represent conservative and liberal points of view.  Fifty delegates from 11 countries in Western Europe attended the first conference, along with 11 Americans.

1956 : C. Wright Mills' book The Power Elite was published. In it Mills calls attention to the interwoven interests of the leaders of the military, corporate, and political elements of society and suggests that the ordinary citizen is a relatively powerless subject of manipulation by those entities.  The structural basis of The Power Elite is that, following World War II, the United States was the leading country in military and economic terms.

1958 : July 29, Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act, establishing NASA.  A significant contributor to NASA's entry into the Space Race with the Soviet Union was the technology from the Nazi rocket program led by Werner von Braun.

1961 : January 17, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower used his exit speech to issue the following warning "In the councils of government, we must guard against the acquisition of unwarranted influence, whether sought or unsought, by the militaryindustrial complex. The potential for the disastrous rise of misplaced power exists and will persist.  We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together."

1961 : April 18, Proposed Studies on the Implications of Peaceful Space Activities for Human Affairs, often referred to as the Brookings Report, commissioned by NASA and created by the Brookings Institution in collaboration with NASA was submitted to the Committee on Science and Astronautics of the United States House of Representatives. It was entered into the Congressional Record and can be found in any library possessing the Congressional Record for that year.  The report has become famous for one short section titled, "Implications of a discovery of extraterrestrial life," which examines the potential implications of such a discovery on public attitudes and values.  The section briefly considers possible public reactions to some possible scenarios for the discovery of extraterrestrial life, stressing a need for further research in this area. It recommends continuing studies to determine the likely social impact of such a discovery and its effects on public attitudes, including study of the question of how leadership should handle information about such a discovery and under what circumstances leaders might or might not find it advisable to withhold such information from the public.

1961 : April 27, US President John F. Kennedy gave a speech to the American Newspaper Publishers Association warning that "...we are opposed around the world by a monolithic and ruthless conspiracy that relies primarily on covert means for expanding its sphere of influence–on infiltration instead of invasion, on subversion instead of elections, on intimidation instead of free choice, on guerrillas by night instead of armies by day. It is a system which has conscripted vast human and material resources into the building of a tightly knit, highly efficient machine that combines military, diplomatic, intelligence, economic, scientific and political operations.  Its preparations are concealed, not published. Its mistakes are buried, not headlined. Its dissenters are silenced, not praised. No expenditure is questioned, no rumor is printed, no secret is revealed."

1962 : September 12, US President J.F. Kennedy delivers a speech at Rice University on the subject of the nation's plans to land humans on the Moon. Kennedy announces his continued support for increased space expenditures, saying "we choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard."

1963 : The Codex Alimentarius Commission was established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations  and the World Health Organization.

1963 : November 22, John F. Kennedy assassinated in Dealey Plaza, Dallas.

1966 : Carroll Quigley's book "Tragedy and Hope: A History of the World in Our Time" was published in which Quigley writes “The powers of financial capitalism had a far-reaching plan, nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole… Their secret is that they have annexed from governments, monarchies, and republics the power to create the world’s money…”

1967 : The Report from Iron Mountain was published.  It  concluded that war, or a credible substitute for war, is necessary if governments are to maintain power in the event global peace is achieved.  The report states "In general, the war system provides the basic motivation for primary social organization. In so doing, it reflects on the societal level the incentives of individual human behavior. The most important of these, for social purposes, is the individual psychological rationale for allegiance to a society and its values.  Allegiance requires a cause; a cause requires an enemy. This much is obvious; the critical point is that the enemy that defines the cause must seem genuinely formidable. Roughly speaking, the presumed power of the "enemy" sufficient to warrant an individual sense of allegiance to a society must be proportionate to the size and complexity of the society. Today, of course, that power must be one of unprecedented magnitude and frightfulness."  Credible war substitutes  proposed included environmental devastation and a faked extraterrestrial threat.

1967, January 22, Gus Grissom, an American astronaut, held an unauthorized press conference in which he told reporters that the United States was "at least a decade away" from even contemplating a lunar mission. He was severely rebuked for giving that interview without permission.  Following this reprimand, Gus Grissom later came out of a water tank reduced gravity simulation of the supposed lunar landing module, and hung a lemon attached to a coat-hanger in front of a NASA emblem to indicate to any cameras present, without speaking, what he and his fellow crew members, Roger Chaffee and Edward White, thought of the Apollo programme.

1967:  January 27, Gus Grissom, Ed White and Roger Chaffee were killed on the launch pad when a flash fire engulfs their command module during testing for the first Apollo/Saturn mission. They are the first U.S. astronauts to die in the line of duty.

1967 : June 8, United States Navy technical research ship, USS Liberty, was attacked by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy torpedo boats, during the Six-Day War.  The incident was covered up by both Israeli and US governments.  The press release for the 2002 BBC documentary film Dead in the Water stated that new recorded and other evidence suggests the attack was a "daring ploy by Israel to fake an Egyptian attack" to give America a reason to enter the war against Egypt. Convinced that the attack was real, President of the United States Lyndon B. Johnson launched  planes targeted against Cairo from a U.S. aircraft carrier in the Mediterranean. The planes were recalled only just in time, when it was clear the Liberty had not sunk and that Israel had carried out the attack.

1968 : April, The Club of Rome was founded by Aurelio Peccei, an Italian industrialist, and Alexander King, a Scottish scientist. It was formed when a small international group of people from the fields of academia, civil society, diplomacy, and industry, met at a villa in Rome, Italy, hence the name.  According to its website (in 2012) , the Club of Rome is composed of "scientists, economists, businessmen, international high civil servants, heads of state and former heads of state from all five continents who are convinced that the future of humankind is not determined once and for all and that each human being can contribute to the improvement of our societies."

1969 : July 20, The American government claimed Apollo 11 was the spaceflight which landed the first humans, Americans Neil Armstrong and Freemason Buzz Aldrin, on the Moon on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC.  It is claimed a third member of the mission, Michael Collins, remained alone in lunar orbit until they returned from the surface about 15 hours later.  All three astronauts returned to Earth safely after travelling in space for 8 days.

1970 : By the early 1970s, as the costs of the Vietnam War and increased domestic spending accelerated inflation, the U.S. was running a balance-of-payments deficit and a trade deficit, the first in the 20th century.  The year 1970 was the crucial turning point, because foreign arbitrage of the U.S. dollar caused governmental gold coverage of the paper dollar to decline from 55% to 22%. That, in the view of neoclassical economics and the Austrian School, represented the point where holders of the U.S. dollar lost faith in the U.S. government's ability to cut its budget and trade deficits.

1970 : Zbigniew Brzezinski's Between Two Ages : America's Role in the Technetronic Era was published.  In the book Brezezinski wrote "The nationstate as a fundamental unit of man's organized life has ceased to be the principal creative force: "International banks and multinational corporations are acting and planning in terms that are far in advance of the political concepts of the nationstate.""

1971 : More and more dollars were being printed in Washington, then being pumped overseas, to pay for government expenditure on the Vietnam War and social programs.  In the first six months of 1971, assets for $22 billion fled the U.S.

1971 : May, inflation-wary West Germany was the first member country to unilaterally leave the Bretton Woods system — unwilling to devalue the Deutsche Mark in order to prop up the dollar. In the following three months, West Germany's move strengthened its economy. Simultaneously, the dollar dropped 7.5% against the Deutsche Mark.

1971: August 15,  In response to the declining value of the US dollar and several nations redeeming their paper U.S. dollars for the safety of gold, President Richard Nixon unilaterally imposed 90-day wage and price controls, a 10% import surcharge, and most importantly closed the gold window, making the dollar inconvertible to gold directly, except on the open market. Unusually, this decision was made without consulting members of the international monetary system or even his own State Department, and was soon dubbed the Nixon Shock.  At home the President was credited with finally rescuing the American public from price-gougers, and from a foreign-caused exchange crisis.  The Bretton Woods system was effectively ended and the world entered the first completely fiat monetary system.

1972 : The Club of Rome commisioned book "The Limits to Growth" about the computer modeling of unchecked economic and population growth with finite resource supplies was published.  Soon after publication prominent economists, scientists and political figures criticized the book. They attacked the methodology, the computer, the conclusions, the rhetoric and the people behind the project.  Yale economist Henry C. Wallich agreed that growth could not continue indefinitely, but that a natural end to growth was preferable to intervention. Wallich stated that technology could solve all the problems the Meadows were concerned about, but only if growth continued apace. By stopping growth too soon, Wallich warned, the world would be "consigning billions to permanent poverty".

1972 : December 7, Apollo 17 was the eleventh and final manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, with a three-member crew consisting of Commander Eugene Cernan, Command Module Pilot Ronald Evans, and Lunar Module Pilot Harrison Schmitt, Apollo 17 remains the most recently claimed manned Moon landing and the most recently claimed manned flight beyond low Earth orbit.

1973 : President Nixon promised King Faisal of Saudi Arabia that the US would protect Saudi Arabian oilfields from any and all invaders. In return, Saudi Arabia and by extension OPEC, agreed to sell their oil in US dollars only. Essentially, this meant that all countries purchasing oil from OPEC had to do so in US dollars, or ‘petrodollars’. This forced the world’s oil money to flow through the US Federal Reserve, creating ever-growing international demand for U.S. dollars. As part of the deal, OPEC countries were required to invest their profits in US treasuries, bonds and bills.  This strengthened the US dollar, resulting in a steady US economic growth.  Many countries focused on exporting goods to the U.S. to maintain their constant supply of the Federal Reserve paper. Paper money went out, while everything America needed came in and in the process the United States got very, very rich.

1973 : July, The Trilateral Commission was established by David Rockefeller after the Bilderberg Group refused to include Japan.  It was designed to foster closer cooperation among the United States, Europe and Japan.  Zbigniew Brzezinski, a professor at Columbia University and a Rockefeller advisor who was a specialist on international affairs, left his post to organize the group.  Other founding members included Alan Greenspan and Paul Volcker, both later heads of the Federal Reserve system.

1973 : December 13, According to Raëlian beliefs Claude Vorilhon, who was at the time a professional test driver and automobile journalist for the Autopop Magazine, had a first meeting with an extraterrestrial humanoid, an Eloha (plural: Elohim), who landed a UFO within an inactive volcano called Puy de Lassolas near the capital of Auvergne, France (Clermont-Ferrand).

1974 : April, Richard N. Garner wrote "The Hard Road to World Order" in Foreign Affairs, published by The Council on Foreign Relations.  Garner stated "Certainly the gap has never loomed larger between the objectives and the capacities of the international organizations that were supposed to get mankind on the road to world order. We are witnessing an outbreak of shortsighted nationalism that seems oblivious to the economic, political and moral implications of interdependence. Yet never has there been such widespread recognition by the world's intellectual leadership of the necessity for coöperation and planning on a truly global basis, beyond country, beyond region, especially beyond social system. Never has there been such an extraordinary growth in the constructive potential of transnational private organizations-not just multinational corporations but international associations of every kind in which like-minded persons around the world weave effective patterns of global action. And never have we seen such an impressive array of ongoing negotiations aimed at the coöperative management of global problems. To familiar phrases like the "population explosion" and the "communications explosion" we should now add the "negotiation explosion."

1975 : The CIA's heart attack gun was revealed to the Church Committee, which is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities.  A precursor to the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, the committee investigated intelligence gathering for illegality by the CIA and FBI after certain activities had been revealed by the Watergate affair.

1975 : October, In an interview with Robert Scheer in Playboy magazine, Vice-President Nelson Rockefeller- who was also Governor of New York- articulated his family's patronizing worldview, “I am a great believer in planning- economic, social, political, military, total world planning.”

1976 : British TV news presenter Jon Snow rejected an approach by the British intelligence services to spy on his colleagues. At first he was asked to supply information about the Communist Party, but he was then asked to spy on certain "left-wing people" working in television.  In return he would have received secret monthly tax-free payments into his bank account, matching his then salary.

1978 : The Group of Thirty (G30) was founded in 1978 by Geoffrey Bell at the initiative of the Rockefeller Foundation, which also provided initial funding for the body. The G30, includes the heads of major private banks and central banks, as well as members from academia and international institutions who aim to deepen understanding of economic and financial issues and to examine consequences of decisions made in the public and private sectors related to these issues.  The group consists of thirty members including, in 2012, Zhou Xiaochuan - Governor, People's Bank of China; Former President, Chinese Construction Bank; Former Asst. Minister of Foreign Trade.

1978 : April 24, Time Magazine "Can the "image of God" survive in extraterrestrial life?  Scientists today generally assume, and the mathematical probabilities favor, the existence of intelligent life among the myriad planets wheeling through the cosmos. If that is so, what happens to the Creator-God who made man "in his own image," or to the Christian doctrine that this God took the extraordinary step of becoming man in order to redeem one species of bipedal beings on earth?  Major religious thinkers have yet to give serious attention to the issues posed by what some call "exotheology" (the theology of outer space)."

1979 : Dr. John I. Goodlad, in his book Schooling for a Global Age wrote "Parents and the general public must be reached also. Otherwise, children and youth enrolled in globally oriented programs may find themselves in conflict with values assumed in the home. And then the educational institution frequently comes under scrutiny and must pull back."

1980 : Georgia Guidestones, recording guidelines for humanity, were erected by "R.C. Christian (a pseudonyn)".  The guiding principles include Maintain humanity under 500,000,000 in perpetual balance with nature.  Guide reproduction wisely – improving fitness and diversity.  Let all nations rule internally resolving external disputes in a world court.

1981 : March 26-27, William Sims Bainbridge, sociologist and member of the National Science Foundation presented Religions for a Galactic Civilization to the Nineteenth Goddard Memorial Symposium of the American Astronautical Society.  Bainbridge concerns himself predominantly with the development of a new world religion, which he dubs the "Church of God Galactic." Expanding on the characteristics intrinsic to such a church, Bainbridge suggests, "its most likely origins are in science fiction".

1983 : May, Larry MacDonald, second president of the John Birch Society, said "The drive of the Rockefellers and their allies is to create a one-world government, combining super-capitalism and Communism under the same tent, all under their control ... Do I mean conspiracy? Yes I do. I am convinced there is such a plot, international in scope, generations old in planning, and incredibly evil in intent."

1983 : A statement from the Sacred Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith approved by Pope John Paul II stated "The faithful who enroll in Masonic associations are in a state of grave sin and may not receive Holy Communion." and "... membership in them (Masonic associations) remains forbidden."

1983 : September 1, Korean Air Lines Flight 007 was shot down by Soviet interceptors, Larry MacDonald was a passenger on board and was presumed dead.  "There is a real question in my mind that the Soviets may have actually murdered 269 passengers and crew on the Korean Air Lines Flight 007 in order to kill Larry McDonald." – Jerry Falwell, The Washington Post, September 2, 1983.

1984 : January, the Grace Commission Report was presented to Congress in January 1984.  The report said that one-third of all income taxes is consumed by waste and inefficiency in the federal government, and another one-third escapes collection owing to the underground economy. “With two thirds of everyone’s personal income taxes wasted or not collected, 100 percent of what is collected is absorbed solely by interest on the federal debt and by federal government contributions to transfer payments. In other words, all individual income tax revenues are gone before one nickel is spent on the services taxpayers expect from their government."

1985 :  December 4, US President Ronald Reagan said to Fallston High School Students and Faculty "... when you stop to think that we're all God's children, wherever we may live in the world, I couldn't help but say to him, just think how easy his task and mine might be in these meetings that we held if suddenly there was a threat to this world from some other species from another planet outside in the universe. We'd forget all the little local differences that we have between our countries and we would find out once and for all that we really are all human beings here on this earth together"

1987 : September 15, conversation reported by senior editor Fred Barnes in the New Republic, during a luncheon in the White House between the President and Eduard Shevardnatze, during the Foreign Minister's visit to Washington to sign the INF Treaty. "Near the end of his lunch with Shevardnadze," wrote Barnes, "Reagan wondered aloud what would happen if the world faced an 'alien threat' from outer space. 'Don't you think the United States and the Soviet Union would be together?' he asked. Shevardnadze said yes, absolutely. "And we wouldn't need our defense ministers to meet,' he added."

1987 : September 21, US President Ronald Reagan speech to the United Nations General Assembly: "Cannot swords be turned to plowshares?  Can we and all nations not live in peace?  In our obsession with antagonisms of the moment, we often forget how much unites all the members of humanity. Perhaps we need some outside, universal threat to make us recognize this common bond. I occasionally think how quickly our differences worldwide would vanish if we were facing an alien threat from outside this world. And yet, I ask you, is not an alien force already among us? What could be more alien to the universal aspirations of our peoples than war and the threat of war?"

1987 : Senator Daniel K. Inouye Chaired the Senate Select Committee on Secret Military Assistance to Iran and the Nicaraguan Opposition, which held public hearings on the Iran-Contra affair.  Senator Inouye, summarized the coverup of the US Shadowy Government involvement; by saying:  "There exists a shadowy Government with its own Air Force, its own Navy, its own fundraising mechanism, and the ability to pursue its own ideas of the national interest, free from all checks and balances, and free from the law itself."

1987 : February 17, Gorbachev confirmed a conversation with Ronald Reagan during a speech at the Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow, to the Central Committee of the USSR's Communist Party.  "At our meeting in Geneva, the U.S. President said that if the earth faced an invasion by extraterrestials, the United States and the Soviet Union would join forces to repel such an invasion. I shall not dispute the hypothesis, though I think it's early yet to worry about such an intrusion..."

1988 : May 5, US President Ronald Reagan to reporters as he left the White House for Chicago "But, I've often wondered what if all of us in the world discovered that we were threatened by an outer--a power from another planet. Wouldn't we all of a sudden find that that we didn't have any differences between us at all, we were all human beings, citizens of the world and wouldn't we come together to fight that particular threat?"

1988 :  January 9, Rothschild magazine The Economist ran a front cover headline "Get Ready for a World Currency" the design depicted a phoenix wearing a fleur de lis crown and a "10 Phoenix" coin medalion dated 2018.

1990 : September 11, US President George Bush in an address to a joint session of Congress and the nation said: "Now, we can see a new world coming into view. A world in which there is the very real prospect of a new world order.  In the words of Winston Churchill, a "world order" in which "the principles of justice and fair play ... protect the weak against the strong ..." A world where the United Nations, freed from cold war stalemate, is poised to fulfil the historic vision of its founders. A world in which freedom and respect for human rights find a home among all nations."

1991 : The First Global Revolution, published by The Club of Rome stated "Elite circles are reconciled easily to changing values despite the surface controvesy.  The general public is not involved, only manipulated in debates of this type.  The gulf between elite thinking and popular thinking is enormous.  It is here that we find distortion and tensions that are difficult or even impossible to resolve"

1999 : August 10, Danny Casolaro, an American freelance writer came to public attention when he was found dead in a bathtub in room 517 of the Sheraton Hotel in Martinsburg, West Virginia, his wrists slashed 10–12 times. A note was found, and the medical examiner ruled the death a suicide.  Danny's death became controversial because his notes suggested he was in Martinsburg to meet a source about a story he called "the Octopus." This centered around a sprawling collaboration involving an international cabal, and primarily featuring a number of stories familiar to journalists who worked in and near Washington, D.C. in the 1980s—the Inslaw case, about a software manufacturer whose owner accused the Justice Department of stealing its work product; the October Surprise theory that during the Iran hostage crisis, Iran deliberately held back American hostages to help Ronald Reagan win the 1980 presidential election; the collapse of the Bank of Credit and Commerce International; and Iran-Contra.

1992 : United Nations Conference on Environment and Development  held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

1992 : Steven Greer started The Disclosure Project, which is a nonprofit research project that purports to expose the existence of a US government cover-up of information relating to unidentified flying objects (UFOs).

1993 : The Club of Rome published The First Global Revolution.  According to this book, divided nations require common enemies to unite them, "either a real one or else one invented for the purpose."Because of the sudden absence of traditional enemies, "new enemies must be identified.""In searching for a new enemy to unite us, we came up with the idea that pollution, the threat of global warming, water shortages, famine and the like would fit the bill....All these dangers are caused by human intervention, and it is only through changed attitudes and behavior that they can be overcome. The real enemy then, is humanity itself."

1993 : Laurance Rockefeller, along with his niece, Anne Bartley, the stepdaughter of Winthrop Rockefeller and the then-president of the Rockefeller Family Fund, he established the UFO Disclosure Initiative to the Clinton White House. They asked for all UFO information held by the government, including from the CIA and the US Air Force, to be declassified and released to the public. The first and most important test case where declassification had to apply, according to Rockefeller, was the Roswell UFO incident.

1993 : March 17, Congressman James Traficant, Jr. (Ohio) addressing the House: "Mr. Speaker, we are here now in chapter 11.. Members of Congress are official trustees presiding over the greatest reorganization of any Bankrupt entity in world history, the U.S. Government. We are setting forth hopefully, a blueprint for our future. There are some who say it is a coroner’s report that will lead to our demise.  It is an established fact that the United States Federal Government has been dissolved by the Emergency Banking Act, March 9, 1933, 48 Stat. 1, Public Law 89-719; declared by President Roosevelt, being bankrupt and insolvent. H.J.R. 192, 73rd Congress m session June 5, 1933 - Joint Resolution To Suspend The Gold Standard and Abrogate The Gold Clause dissolved the Sovereign Authority of the United States and the official capacities of all United States Governmental Offices, Officers, and Departments and is further evidence that the United States Federal Government exists today in name only."

1994 : September, the US Air Force issued a report that categorically denied the Roswell incident of 1947 was UFO-related.

1994 : September, Dr. John I. Goodlad wrote  "Enlightened social engineering is required to face situations that demand global action now... Parents and the general public must be reached also, otherwise, children and youth enrolled in globally oriented programs may find themselves in conflict with values assumed in the home. And then the educational institution frequently comes under scrutiny and must pull back." in the document entitled "Guide to Getting Out Your Message, National Education Goals Panel Community Action Toolkit: A Do-It-Yourself Kit for Education Renewal"

1996 : April 19, Dateline NBC conducted an interview with Freemason Astronaut Edgar Mitchell during which he discussed meeting with officials from three countries who claimed to have had personal encounters with extraterrestrials. He offered his opinion that the evidence for such "alien" contact was "very strong" and "classified" by governments, who were covering up visitations and the existence of alien beings' bodies in places such as Roswell, New Mexico. He further claimed that UFOs had provided "sonic engineering secrets" that were helpful to the U.S. government.

1996 : May, in a 3-hour interview with Art Bell on the Coast to Coast radio program, Freemason Astronaut Edgar Mitchell claimed no personal knowledge of alien spacecraft landing in Roswell, New Mexico; that the notion of there being alien-built structures on the moon was "pure fantasy," and that there were no anomalies seen on Apollo 14 suggesting extra-terrestrial life.

1997 : April 28, US Secretary of Defense William Cohen, in speech to the University of Georgia, spoke of the threat of an “eco-type of terrorism whereby they can alter the climate, set off earthquakes, volcanoes remotely through the use of electromagnetic waves.”

1997 : June 3, The Project for a New American Century's (PNAC's) first public act was releasing a "Statement of Principles" which was signed by both its members and a variety of other notable conservative politicians and journalists .  Section V of PNAC's Rebuilding America's Defenses, entitled "Creating Tomorrow's Dominant Force", includes the sentence: "the process of transformation, even if it brings revolutionary change, is likely to be a long one, absent some catastrophic and catalyzing event––like a new Pearl Harbor"

1998 : January 26, PNAC wrote a letter to President Clinton, which urged him to embrace a plan for the removal of Saddam Hussein’s regime from power.

2000 : September 24, Iraq's Saddam Hussein declares that his country will no longer price oil in U.S. dollars, but in euros instead. This is a direct attack on the petrodollar and therefore the US.

2001 : May 9th, As part of Steven Greer's Disclosure Project, over twenty military, intelligence, government, corporate and scientific witnesses came forward at the  National Press Club in Washington, DC to testify about their own experiences of UFOs or extraterrestrial vehicles, extraterrestrial life forms, and resulting advanced energy and propulsion technologies.

2001 : June 28, On his radio show Bill Cooper predicted an iminent Illuminati attack on the US would be blamed on Osama Bin Laden.

2001 : July 25, On his radio show Alex Jones repeated Bill Cooper's prediction of June 28, 2001.

2001 : September 10, civil rights icon Dick Gregory was told to leave New York, echoing similar warnings that were received by other high profile figures including San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown.  US Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld, announced US$2.3 trillion could not be accounted for at The Pentagon.

2001 : September 11, New York and Pentagon attacked.  Mainstream media blamed Osama Bin Laden.

2001 : November 5, Bill Cooper was fatally shot by a law enforcement officer at his Eagar, Arizona home.

2002 :  David Rockefeller wrote in his autobiography "Some even believe we are part of a secret cabal working against the best interests of the United States, characterizing my family and me as internationalists and of conspiring with others around the world to build a more integrated global political and economic structure — one world, if you will. If that's the charge, I stand guilty, and I am proud of it."

2002 : January 29, In his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, President George W. Bush declared that Iraq was a member of the "Axis of Evil", and that, like North Korea and Iran, Iraq's attempt to acquire weapons of mass destruction posed a serious threat to U.S. national security. These claims were based on documents that were provided to him by the CIA and the government of the United Kingdom.

2002 : April 12, after a two-month federal trial, a jury found Congressman James Traficant (a critic of New World Order Zionism) guilty of bribery and other charges. He was sentenced to a federal prison, where he served seven years. He was expelled from the U.S. Congress on July 24, 2002 by a 420-1 vote. The sole Congressman voting against expulsion was Gary Condit, who at the time was in the midst of a scandal involving the disappearance of his former intern, Chandra Levy.

2003 : March 20, a US organized coalition invaded Iraq, with the stated reason that Iraq had failed to abandon its nuclear and chemical weapons development program in violation of U.N. Resolution 687. The US asserted that because Iraq was in material breach of Resolution 687, the armed forces authorization of Resolution 678 was revived. The US further justified the invasion by claiming that Iraq had or was developing weapons of mass destruction and stating a desire to remove an oppressive dictator from power and "bring democracy to Iraq."  No mention of the petrodollar and Sadam Hussain's 2001 decision to trade oil for Euro's was made.

2003 : September 7, all emergency services and members of London Underground took part in Operation Osiris at Bank Tube station.  The hypothetical scenario was a chemical attack on the Underground.

2004 : Freemason Astronaut Edgar Mitchell told the St. Petersburg Times that a "cabal of insiders" in the U.S. government were studying recovered alien bodies, and that this group had stopped briefing U.S. Presidents after John F. Kennedy.  He said, "We all know that UFOs are real; now the question is where they come from."

2005 : July 6, The International Olympic Committee  announced that the 2012 Olympic Games would be held in London.

2005 : July 7, The London bombings (often referred to as 7/7) were a series of co-ordinated terror attacks in London which targeted civilians using the public transport system during the morning rush hour.  Mainstream media blamed 4 homegrown islamic suicide bombers.

2005 : July 8, British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook wrote in The Guardian newspaper "Al-Qaida, literally "the database", was originally the computer file of the thousands of mujahideen who were recruited and trained with help from the CIA to defeat the Russians."

2005 : August 6, British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook died after suffering a severe heart attack whilst walking down Ben Stack in Sutherland, Scotland.

2006 : October 9, during a senatorial debate Stan Jones stated "The secret organisations of the world power elite are no longer secret, they have planned and are now leading us into a one world communist government.  The combining of national governments started with The European union; that union started with trade agreements, then a common currency, the Euro, and now a European Parliament that is feverishly passing laws that overide laws of the member nations.  A constitution was drafted but was rejected by a few of those nations - but never mind they implemented it anywayNow its North America's turn, building on the North American Free Trade Agreement, the NAFTA section of the Commerce Department is busy drafting laws and regulations for a North American Union, a union of Canada, America and MexicoThe President has attended secret meetings and signed at least 2 agreements under the Security and Prosperity Partnership Program.  Information leaked out about the meetings and now it is all in the open.  No treaty has been signed so Congress has not become involved, however money from our treasury is now being spent for this effort.  We will have a new currency, the Amero, and a new constitution, modelled on the Soviet Union's constitution.  Our rights will not be inalienable, but they will be granted by government who can also take them away.  One sign that this is our future is the plans for the super highways from southern Mexico through America and into Canada.  These plans are not secret any longer, huge amounts of property will be taken in the name of free trade, peace and security.  You will have a national ID card with an radio frequency chip in it, that's already law in America... ...You will not be able to move around freely, this is terrorism of the most worst kind brought on you by our own government.  The strongest free-est nation in the history of mankind will be averaged into world communism.  Is that what you want? Are we the people still in control of this nation?  We must begin to act like we are.

2007 : January 19, BBC News.  UK Chancellor Gordon Brown has spoken of the need for a "new world order" to deal with future security and environmental challenges.  He called for a "new diplomacy" to go alongside military power to defeat terrorism, share prosperity and "win the battle of hearts and minds".  That meant strengthening Britain's global alliances but also reforming institutions such as the EU and UN.  Mr Brown was speaking in Mumbai on the latest stage of his tour of India.  The chancellor said he had been inspired by Mahatma Gandhi as he laid a wreath at the memorial to the former leader.

2007 : March 1, Archbishop Gianfranco Girotti, the regent of the Apostolic Penitentiary made a statement that membership in Masonic organisations "remains forbidden" to Catholics and called on priests who had declared themselves to be Freemasons to be disciplined by their direct superiors. It was in reaction to the declaration that the 85 year old priest Rosario Francesco Esposito had declared himself a Freemason even though he was once commissioned by the Church to study the Church’s teaching on masonry.

2007 : March 2, Wesley Clark, Retired 4-Star General and Supreme Allied Commander Europe of NATO from 1997 to 2000 said in a DemocracyNow interview "So I came back to see him a few weeks later and by that time we were bombing in Afghanistan. I said 'Are we still going to war with Iraq?' and he said, 'Oh, it’s worse than that', he reached over on his desk, picked a piece of paper and he said: 'I just got this down from upstairs today (meaning secretary of defense office) today. This is a memo that describes how we’re going take out 7 countries in 5 years, starting with Iraq and then Syria, Lebanon, Libya, Somalia, Sudan and finishing of Iran.'"

2007 : September 27, France’s President Nicolas Sarkozy, in his first appearance before the assembly, called on the UN to avail itself as an instrument for a “new world order of the 21st century".  "In the name of France, I call upon all states to join ranks in order to found the new world order of the 21st century on the notion that the common goods that belong to all of humankind must be the common responsibility for us all,” he told the General Assembly.

2008 : May 13, Writing in the Vatican newspaper, the astronomer, Father Gabriel Funes, said intelligent beings created by God could exist in outer space.  The search for forms of extraterrestrial life, he says, does not contradict belief in God.  The official Vatican newspaper headlines his article 'Aliens Are My Brother'.

2008 : July 23, Freemason Astronaut Edgar Mitchell was interviewed on Kerrang Radio by Nick Margerrison. Mitchell claimed the Roswell crash was real and that aliens have contacted humans several times, but that governments have hidden the truth for 60 years stating, "I happen to have been privileged enough to be in on the fact that we've been visited on this planet, and the UFO phenomenon is real." In reply, a spokesman for NASA stated, "NASA does not track UFOs. NASA is not involved in any sort of cover up about alien life on this planet or anywhere in the universe. Dr Mitchell is a great American, but we do not share his opinions on this issue."

2008 : July 25, in an interview with Fox News Freemason Astronaut Edgar Mitchell clarified that his previous comments about aliens and UFOs did not involve NASA, but quoted unnamed sources, since deceased, at Roswell who confided to him that the Roswell incident did involve an alien craft. Mitchell also claims to have subsequently received confirmation from an unnamed intelligence officer at the Pentagon.

2008 : August 24, The Summer Olympics Closing Ceremony concluded the Beijing Games.  The Ceremony included the handover of the Games from Beijing to London, which included symbology suggestive of the 2005 7/7 London bombings and included a performance by famous satanist Jimmy Page of Led Zepplin and music from the anthem "Jerusalem" by William Blake.

2008 : November 10, Daily Telegraph.  As Britain moves into a painful recession Gordon Brown has staked his own leadership on helping to find a way out of the global crisis.  In a speech to City financiers at the annual Lord Mayor's banquet in London he will say: "The British Government will begin to begin a new Bretton Woods with a new IMF that offers, by its surveillance of every economy, an early warning system and a crisis prevention mechanism for the whole world...  The alliance between Britain and the US, and more broadly between Europe and the US, can and must provide leadership, not in order to make the rules ourselves, but to lead the global effort to build a stronger and more just international order."

2008 : December 8, Gideon Rachman, Financial Times Article entitled "And now for a world government" "...a change in the political atmosphere suggests that “global governance” could come much sooner... The financial crisis and climate change are pushing national governments towards global solutions, even in countries such as China and the US that are traditionally fierce guardians of national sovereignty."

2009 : January 5, Henry Kissinger, the Nobel Peace Prize winner and former secretary of state under President Nixon remarked in an interview with CNBC’s Squawk on the Street  “The president-elect [Obama] is coming into office at a moment when there is upheaval in many parts of the world simultaneously,... You have India, Pakistan; you have the jihadist movement. So he can’t really say there is one problem, that it’s the most important one. But he can give new impetus to American foreign policy partly because the reception of him is so extraordinary around the world. His task will be to develop an overall strategy for America in this period when, really, a new world order can be created. It’s a great opportunity, it isn’t just a crisis.”

2009 : March 6, US Secretary of State Hiliary Clinton told young Europeans at the European Parliament that global economic turmoil provided a fresh opening. "Never waste a good crisis ... Don't waste it when it can have a very positive impact on climate change and energy security," she said.

2009 : April 1, Jay Rockefeller introduced the Cybersecurity Act of 2009 - S.773  before Congress. Citing the vulnerability of the Internet to cyber-attacks, the bill made provisions to turn the US Department of Commerce into a public-private clearing house to share potential threat information with the owners of large private networks. It authorized the Secretary of Commerce to sequester any information deemed necessary, without regard to any law.  It also authorized the president to declare an undefined "cyber-emergency" allowing him to shut down any and all traffic to any server considered compromised.

2009 : April 3, Daily Telegraph.  Gordon Brown announced the creation of a "new world order" after the conclusion of the G20 summit of world leaders in London. "This is the day that the world came together to fight back against the global recession," he said. "Not with words but with a plan for global recovery and reform... Today’s decisions, of course, will not immediately solve the crisis. But we have begun the process by which it will be solved," Mr Brown said. "I think a new world order is emerging with the foundation of a new progressive era of international co-operation,"

2009 : July 22, Freemason Astronaut Buzz Aldrin referred to a "Phobos monolith" in an interview with C-Span: "We should go boldly where man has not gone before. Fly by the comets, visit asteroids, visit the moon of Mars. There's a monolith there. A very unusual structure on this potato shaped object that goes around Mars once in seven hours. When people find out about that they're going to say 'Who put that there? Who put that there?' The universe put it there. If you choose, God put it there…"

2009 : September, in an interview with Fox News' Greta Van Susteren former Congressman James Traficant said he was the top target of AIPAC and the U.S. Justice Department. On the subject of Israel, he stated: "They [Israel] are controlling much of our foreign policy. They're influencing much of our domestic policy. Wolfowitz as undersecretary of defense manipulated President Bush number two back into Iraq. They've pushed definitely, definitely to try to get Bush before he left to move into Iran. We're conducting the expansionist policy of Israel and everybody's afraid to say it. They control much of the media, they control much of the commerce of the country, and they control powerfully both bodies of the Congress. They own the Congress."

2009 : November 9, Chancellor Angela Merkel called for the establishment of a "new global order" in remarks marking the 20th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall.  Speaking at a scientific conference entitled “Falling Walls”, Merkel told reporters "The most important thing, when attempting to overcome barriers, is: Are the nation states ready and willing to give competencies over to multilateral organizations, no matter what it costs?"  The German leader stated that world unity could only be possible if such "global corrections" were made.  "This world will not be a peaceful one if we do not work for more global order and more multilateral cooperation," Merkel stated.  In the presence of U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, Merkel added that Americans would have to deliver over more authority to multilateral organizations such as the UN, just as Europeans have done to the EU.  Merkel pointed to the forthcoming UN climate summit in December, to be held in Copenhagen, as an opportunity to forge such a new order.

2009 : November 16, the Guardian newspaper reported "Vatican to welcome aliens.  The Catholic church is comfortable with the idea of aliens. Good news for those who believe in compassion for extra-terrestrials...  The excellent sounding Father Jose Funes sees no contradiction between Catholic doctrine and astrobiology, which makes me like him rather a lot: ' ... if we can consider some earthly creatures as 'brothers' or 'sisters', why could we not speak of a 'brother alien'? He would also belong to the creation.' "

2010 : February 19, In a speech thanking the progressive politics believers of the world, Gordon Brown gave his election speech were he praised the New World Order, urging a new global financial constitution, and heralding a new global age.

2010 : April 20, The television series Ancient Aliens premiered on the History channel.  Produced by Prometheus Entertainment, the program presents hypotheses of ancient astronauts and proposes that historical texts, archaeology and legends contain evidence of past human-extraterrestrial contact.  The series features the main proponents in the ancient astronaut theory, and includes interviews with Giorgio A. Tsoukalos, David Childress, Erich von Däniken, Steven Greer and Nick Pope.

2010 : June 18, Dmitry Medvedev, the Russian president, said Moscow was bidding to help lead efforts to build a new world economic order after the old system collapsed in the global financial crisis.  Opening Russia’s annual economic forum in St Petersburg where hundreds of global chief executives have flocked, Mr Medvedev said the renewed interest in Russia this year was a sign of a changing world in which the institutions of the western-dominated world order had had their day amid thousands of corporate defaults and the threat of sovereign defaults.  “What had seemed untouchable has collapsed. The bubbles that created the illusion of flourishing economies have burst,” Mr Medvedev said. “For Russia this situation is a challenge and an opportunity. We are living in a unique time. And we should use it to build a modern, flourishing and strong Russia ... which will be a co-founder of the new world economic order and a full participant in the collective political leadership of the post-crisis world.”

2010 : July 10, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev illustrated his call for a supranational currency to replace the dollar by pulling from his pocket a sample coin of a “united future world currency.”

2010 : September 17, Guy Consolmagno, one of the pope's astronomers, said aliens might have souls and could choose to be baptised if humans ever met them.

2010 : November 5–6, Ben Bernanke, chairman of The Federal Reserve System, stayed on Jekyll Island to commemorate the 100-year anniversary of the original secret meeting to create The Federal Reserve Act.

2011 : March 10, Sidney Morning Herald "US must be at centre of new world order: PM.  Prime Minister Julia Gillard has stressed the importance of the United States remaining a military and economic power in the Asia-Pacific, saying that, just as it was indispensable during the Cold War, so, too, would it be indispensable in the new world."

2011 : March 19, a multi-state coalition began a military intervention in Libya.

2011 : April 1, The FBI published it's Vault online including once-classified reports dating back to the 1940s and 1950s detailing Air Force investigations into "flying discs" and the "bodies of human shape" discovered inside them.

2011 : May 5, RT TV “If Gaddafi had an intent to try to re-price his oil or whatever else the country was selling on the global market and accept something else as a currency or maybe launch a gold dinar currency, any move such as that would certainly not be welcomed by the power elite today, who are responsible for controlling the world’s central banks,” says Anthony Wile, founder and chief editor of the Daily Bell.  “So yes, that would certainly be something that would cause his immediate dismissal and the need for other reasons to be brought forward from moving him from power.”

2011 : May 17, UK Daily Telegraph. Scientists discover habitable Earth-like planet.  A rocky world orbiting a nearby star has been confirmed as the first planet outside our solar system to meet key requirements for sustaining life.  Gliese 581d orbits on the outer fringes of the star's "Goldilocks zone", where it is not so hot that water boils away, nor so cold that water is perpetually frozen. Instead, the temperature is just right for water to exist in liquid form.

2011 : October 20, Colonel Gaddafi was captured and killed by rebel militia.

2011 :  October 24,  The Vatican called  for sweeping reforms of the world economy and the creation of an ethical, global authority to regulate financial markets as demonstrations against corporate greed continued to spring up in major cities across the globe.

2012 : January 24, RT TV "India has reportedly agreed to pay Tehran in gold for the oil it buys, in a move aimed at protecting Delhi from US-sanctions targeting countries who trade with Iran.  China, another buyer of Iranian oil, may follow Delhi’s lead."

2012 : February 28, Press TV "Governor of the Central Bank of Iran Mahmoud Bahmani says the country can trade in currencies other than the American dollar in its foreign transactions. 'Iran does not just work with the dollar in trade transactions and every country can pay in its own currency,' said Mahmoud Bahmani on Tuesday. Bahmani added that Tehran could receive gold in its transactions instead of currency transfers."

2012 : March 17, Gary Stix wrote an article for Scientific American entitled Effective World Government Will Be Needed to Stave Off Climate Catastrophe.

2012 : March 26, UK Daily Mail. 'Authentic alien artifact': Why is a Smithsonian-linked museum showing 'real' bits of UFOs?  The exhibits description of the debris reads: 'Three Soviet academic centers and 11 research institutes analyzed the objects from this UFO crash. The distance between atoms is different from ordinary iron. Radar cannot be reflected from the material.  Elements in the material may disappear and new ones appear after heating. One piece disappeared completely in front of four witnesses. The core of the material is composed of a substance with anti-gravitational properties.'

2012 : April 1, BBC Radio 4 Program "Analysis.  What is Money".  Presenter: "Would you mind if I printed my own money - it wouldn't look anything like yours from the Bank of England."  Paul Fisher (Bank of England): "Yes we would mind. When you start printing money, you create value for yourself. If you could issue one thousand pounds worth of IOUs, you've got a thousand pounds for nothing. And so we do restrict people's ability to create their own notes in that way."  Presenter: "You're protecting us against ourselves."  Fisher: "We're protecting you from charlatans."

2012 : April 2, UK Daily Mail.  Sociology and environmental studies professor Kari Norgaard wrote a paper criticising global warming skeptics, suggesting that doubters have a ‘sickness’.  Scientists behind the "Planet Under Pressure" international conference in London put out a statement calling for humans to be packed into denser cities so that the rest of the planet can be surrendered to mother nature.  And fellow attendee Yale University professor Karen Seto told MSNBC: "We certainly don’t want them (humans) strolling about the entire countryside. We want them to save land for nature by living closely [together]."

2012 : April 8, Australia ninemsn news.  Paul Springer, history professor at the Air Command and Staff College, who would advise the military in the event of an alien invasion got "special government clearance" to speak to the news anchor about military planning for defense against an alien attack.

2012: April 25, UK Daily Mail.  "Environmental scientist James Lovelock, renowned for his terrifying predictions of climate change's deadly impact on the planet, has gone back on his previous claims, admitting they were 'alarmist'.  The 92-year-old Briton, who also developed the Gaia theory of the Earth as a single organism, has said climate change is still happening - just not as quickly as he once warned.  He added that other environmental commentators, such as former vice president Al Gore, are also guilty of exaggerating their arguments.  The admission comes as a devastating blow to proponents of climate change who regard Lovelock as a powerful figurehead."

2012 : April 27, UK Daily Telegraph.  "Astronomers have discovered their "holy grail" - a planet capable of supporting life outside our solar system.  Steven Vogt, an astronomer from the University of California, said: "It´s the Holy Grail of exo-planet research to find a planet orbiting around a star at the right distance so it´s not too close where it would lose all its water and not too far where it would freeze.  "It´s right there in the habitable zone - there´s no question or discussion about it. It is not on the edge. It is right in there."  Guillem Anglada-Escudé, of University Göttingen, Germany, said: "With the advent of new generation of instruments, researchers will be able to survey many dwarf stars for similar planets and eventually look for spectroscopic signatures of life in one of these worlds.""

2012 : June 1, Jerusalem Post: "Lord Rothschild, chairman of the Yad Hanadiv family foundation that helped finance the construction of the Knesset, the Supreme Court and the new National Library, as well as the Open University, Educational TV and many other major projects, breaks his silence for the first time about the thinking behind the Rothschilds’ philanthropic work in Israel and speaks frankly about his efforts to ensure that the Jewish and Zionist involvement of the family continues in future generations."

2012 : June 21, Huffington Post.  "Nobel laureate economist Paul Krugman repeated his assertion this week that the United States could benefit economically if the government began pouring money into anti-ET defense in preparation for a possible alien invasion of Earth.  Even a faked war of the worlds scare might help, he suggested."

2012 : June 21, The Dirección General de Aeronautica Civil (DGAC – General Office of Civil Aeronautics) in Chile, launched a website  that presents cases, videos and reports that demonstrates the existence of unidentified flying objects not only in Chile, but around the world.

2012 : June 22, Prison Planet.  Wireless energy transfer (WET), a.k.a. wireless energy transmission, is the transference of electromagnetic energy transmitted from a central power source without the use of connecting wires.  Tesla’s coil experiments, proving the feasibility of WET, during his experiments in Colorado in the early 1900s were the pre-cursor to the “inventions” in this field today.  After Tesla died, the US government confiscated all documents pertaining to his experiments and classified them. Since the 1950s the US government has held this technology in secret.  In the UK, the induction power transfer (IPT) is the first commercially available wireless electric car charger. HaloIPT, a start-up corporation, has released this technology in certain areas of England’s motorways or car parks. Electric cars will be charged automatically when the integrated receiver pad is enabled.  General Motors (GM) has invested $5 million into a wireless charging device called PowerMat that uses inductive charging, which transmits electricity via magnets without any actual, physical connection.  Since GM is owned by the US government, their new device may have more to do with the release of certain Tesla technology covertly.

2012 : June 24, in a eye-opening round table discussion on CNBC's The Kudlow Report, every financial analyst openly admitted that the people of the United States serve central banking interests.

2012 : August 30, Associated Press: "SACRAMENTO, Calif. — An Assembly resolution urging California colleges and universities to squelch nascent anti-Semitism also encouraged educators to crack down on demonstrations against Israel, angering advocates for Muslim students.  With no debate, lawmakers on Tuesday approved a resolution that encourages university leaders to combat a wide array of anti-Jewish and anti-Israel actions."

2012 : September 9, Forbes "The Obama/Bernanke Federal Reserve has been an abysmal failure. No major country’s central bank has been so destructive since the Fed in the 1970s; prior to that, nearly a century ago, it was Germany’s central bank, which created a hyperinflation that helped set up an environment for the Nazi revolution. Unlike other central bank catastrophes this one, so far, is of a slow-motion variety, which is disguising the immensity of the harm being done."

2012 : September 11, Reuters "John Kingman, who oversaw Britain's bailout of its banks in the financial crisis and then led the body responsible for the shareholdings, is to return to the Treasury after two years as a senior banker at Rothschild."

2012 : October 12, atvtoday "52% of the UK population believe evidence of UFOs has or would be covered up, because the fact of their existence would threaten the stability of the government."

2012 : October 13, Daily Mail "The world stopped getting warmer almost 16  years ago, according to new data released last week.  The figures, which have triggered debate  among climate scientists, reveal that from the beginning of 1997 until August  2012, there was no discernible rise in aggregate global temperatures.  This means that the ‘plateau’ or ‘pause’ in  global warming has now lasted for about the same time as the previous period  when temperatures rose, 1980 to 1996. Before that, temperatures had been stable or declining for about 40 years."

2012 : December 3, Vatican City (Catholic News Service) "The world authority envisioned by two popes as a way to ensure global peace and justice would not be a superpower, but primarily a moral force with limited jurisdiction, Pope Benedict XVI said.  The pope made his remarks Dec. 3 to a plenary session of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, which was scheduled to meet for three days to discuss the theme of "political authority and global governance."

2013 : April 8,  WND Money : "At a banking conference on Friday, US Vice President Joe Biden called for the creation of a “new world order” with new financial institutions, updated global rules, a level playing field, and a prosperous China."