Jan 12

Illuminati Symbols


Ancient symbols are everywhere; obelisks of ancient Egypt decorate the Vatican, the City of London, Washington D.C. and many other cities world-wide.  A pentagram and two hexagrams are designed into the street map of Washington D.C.  Pyramids of ancient civilizations throughout the world appear on the US dollar bill, at the Louvre in Paris and on numerous corporate logos.  Prometheus' torch, from 8th century BC Greece, is the symbol of the Olympic Games and is held aloft by the Statue of Liberty in New York Harbour.  Understanding the origin of such symbols and what they represent connects them directly to the mystery schools (Freemasons, Rosicrucians, Knights of Malta) of the Illuminati.


Women with mushroom-headed beings: cave painting in Chad.

Women with mushroom-headed beings: cave painting in Chad.

Many of the symbols below originate in the world's first agricultural societies: Sumeria, Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt and Ancient Greece.  These societies mark the move away from a hunter gatherer existence in which shaman routinely supervised the use of  naturally occurring hallucinogenic substances including mushrooms to help people achieve altered states of consciousness and enlightenment.  In the new societies settlements were permanent and farmers produced more food than they could eat.  They could support more children and, with more hands, they could cultivate more land and produce even more food.  A succession of inventions including the plough, irrigation, metal tools, and selective breeding of crops and livestock lead to increased food surpluses and accelerated population growth.  Surplus food was the first form of wealth and it gave power to those who could control it.  Surplus food also allowed increasing numbers of people to be spared from farming to specialize in occupations such as craft production, warfare, trade or religion.

Gilgamesh the great Sumerian king of Uruk, whose cuneiform Akkadian record it is one of the oldest in existence (2,500 BC)

Gilgamesh the legendary Sumerian king of Uruk, whose cuneiform Akkadian record it is one of the oldest in existence (2,500 BC). He is usually described as two-thirds god and one third man.

Sumeria (in present day southern Iraq) was the first of the new agricultural societies.  Each Sumerian city had its own independent government which was always based in a temple precinct.  A city's ruler was in theory its patron god.  The city itself was regarded as the property of the god, who, it was believed by the masses, actually dwelt in its temple.  In practice the government was headed by a priest who acted as earthly administrator of the god's estates.  Temples physically dominated Sumerian cities and acted as storehouses where surplus food, offered in the name of the city gods, was gathered before being re-distributed as rations to administrators and craft workers or traded for raw materials such as timber, stone and metals which were not available locally.  Shamanic practices ended and knowledge of how to achieve enlightenment was deliberately kept from the people, who were now expected to take their morality from the state religion and do as they were told by the authorities.  The ruling elite valued conscientious workers and soldiers rather than conscious humans, who had experienced contact with the divine.  Knowledge of the old shamanic practices and processes was secretly communicated among the elite ruling class by means of symbols and allegorical religious myths.

Owl of Athena (Minerva) - Wisdom

In Greek religion and mythology, Athena is the goddess of wisdom, courage, inspiration, civilization, law and justice, just warfare, mathematics, strength, strategy, the arts, crafts, and skill. Minerva, Athena's Roman incarnation, embodies similar attributes.

Part of title page, Das verbesserte System der Illuminaten mit allen seinen Graden Einrichtungen, Frankfurt und Leipzig, 1788.

The owl of Athena in Greek mythology (owl of Minerva in Roman myths) is a symbol of wisdom because the owl is capable of seeing even in the dark and of vigilance because the owl is awake at night.

Note the inclusion of the insignia of the Minerval or third degree in Adam Weishaupt's system of degrees developed for his Bavarian Illuminati (part of the title page is shown left).

This design, with the addition of the letters P.M.C.V. (per me caeci vident : through me the blind see), was cast or hand-graved as a jewel to be worn by Minervals. There is no record of how many were made, and only three are known to exist: one in a private collection in Ansbach, Germany; one in a private American collection; and one in the Deutsches Freimaurermuseum Bayreuth.  A photograph of this last one appears in Freimaurer Solange die Welt besteht (Historisches Museum der Stadt Wien, 1993), p. 314.

The text of Der ächte Illuminat oder die whren, unverbesserten Rituale der Illuminaten, Edessa (Frankfort-on-the-Main), 1788, includes rituals for the Preparation, Novitiate, Minerval Degree, the Minor and Major Illuminati Degrees.  The Minerval Degree text describes the “Medallion” with the owl. [1]

An owl is included in the street map around Capitol Hill in Washington D.C. and a tiny owl is hidden on the US dollar bill.

Dollar bill and Capitol Hill owls


A giant owl statue serves as the backdrop for rituals at The Bomehian Grove in California, where members of the Illuminati gather each summer.  In the Cremation of Care ceremony, ritualized at the Bohemian Grove, we hear the "Priest" intone: "O thou, great symbol of all mortal wisdom, Owl of Bohemia, we do beseech thee, grant us thy counsel."  The National Press Club, Washington D.C. also uses an owl (along with other Illuminati symbology) on its logo.

Owl at Bohemian Grove and The National Press Club, Washington D.C.


Obelisks and Lakes - the Cult of Isis and Osiris

Freemason magazine celebrates The Washington Monument

In A Brief History of the Washington Monument and Grounds 1783 to 1978, Charles W. Snell writes about construction of the obelisk as follows:

On July 4, 1848, Benjamin B. French, Grand Master of the Washington D.C., Masonic Lodge, laid the corner stone.  He used the silver trowel Washington had employed at the Capitol in 1793.  The occasion was a national celebration and between 15,000 and 20,000 people were present. [2]

In the Ancient Egyptian myth Isis married her brother, Osiris, and conceived Horus by him. Isis was instrumental in the resurrection of Osiris when he was murdered by Seth.  Using her magical skills, she restored his body to life after having gathered 13 of the 14 body parts that had been strewn about the earth by Seth. but was unable to find the 14th, his phallus, which was eaten by a fish. So Isis created a phallus for him, and then revived him.

The following quote is from Albert Pike’s Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry:

Washington Monument. Washington D.C.

Here we reach the most mysterious part of the ancient initiations, and that most interesting to the Mason who laments the death of his Grand Master Khir-Om...  Speaking of the Temple of Minerva, or of that Isis who was styled the Mother of the Sun-God, and whose Mysteries were termed Isiac, at Sais, he specks of a Tomb in the Temple, in the rear of the Chapel and against the well; and says, "It is the tomb of a man, whose name respect requires me to conceal. Within the Temple were great obelisks of stone [phalli], and a circular lake paved with stones and revetted with a parapet. It seemed to me as large as that at Delos" [there the Mysteries of Apollo were celebrated]. "In this lake the Egyptians celebrate, during the night, what they style the Mysteries, in which are represented the sufferings of the God of whom I have spoken above." . This God was Osiris, put to death by Typhon, and who descended to the Shades and was restored to life; of which he had spoken before. [8]-Masonic interpretation of the Washington Monument obelisk is a phalus.  Taken together with the reflecting pool the monument is evocative of the The Temple of Minerva (Isis) as described by Albert Pike.  Given the mythical fabrication of Osiris' penis by Isis we can speculate that the Washington obelisk represents a particular phallus - that of Osiris.  Similar deductions can be made about many other obelisks in prominent locations, particularly in Europe and North America.

Snake - Symbol of Pagan Religion, Divinity and Enlightenment

World Health Organization Snake

In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius or Aesculapius, is a snake-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine. The symbol has continued to be used in modern times, where it is associated with medicine and health care, yet frequently confused with the staff of the god Hermes, the caduceus. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rod_of_Asclepius



Caduceus - Symbol of Rising Kundalini and Enlightenment

Coiled snakes of the Cadeceus around Prometheu's Torch outside the Snake and Book Secret Society at Yale

Coiled snakes of the Caduceus around Prometheus' Torch outside the secret Society of Book and Snake at Yale University

You will mostly find the caduceus described as a symbolic object representing Hermes (or the Roman Mercury), and by extension trades, occupations or undertakings associated with the god [3].   However, this is the exoteric meaning and if one looks just a little deeper one can easily find the caduseus described as the symbol of Hermetism [4] which emerged in parallel with Gnosticism, Neoplatonism, and early Christianity, which were characterized by a resistance to the dominance of either pure rationality or doctrinal faith.

The predominant literary form of Hermetism are the teachings of Hermes Trismegistus including Poimendres, The Vision Of Hermes wherein Hermes' encounter with the mind of is described. [9]

The coiled snakes of the cadeceus represent rising kundalini energy.  Through meditation, and various esoteric practices, such as Kundalini Yoga, Sahaja Yoga, Kriya Yoga or the use of naturally occurring hallucinogens the kundalini is awakened, and can rise up from the muladhara chakra through the central nadi, called sushumna, inside or alongside the spine and reaches the top of the head. The progress of kundalini through the different chakras leads to different levels of awakening and mystical experience, until the kundalini finally reaches the top of the head, Sahasrara or crown chakra, producing an extremely profound mystical experience, as described by Hermes Trismegistus in Poimendres, The Vision Of Hermes. [5]

The Illuminati understand that in hunter gatherer shamanic societies which existed before agriculture gave rise to permanent settlements and bureaucratic government all members of society endulged in altered states of consciousness and lead a spiritual existence.  Such spiritual people are much more difficult to rule over because they typically regard themselves as sacred beings equal to others.  Governments prefer people to live in fear of authority and of altered states of consciousness because they want obedient solders and workers to work on their behalf.

Caduseus Collection

Left - Hermes holds a caduceus.  Centre left - caduceus with Promethian torches and pine cone on the Whitehall Building new York City.  Centre Right - Caduceus by James Muir at Sedona.  Right - caduceus and the chakras.

Winged Sun Disc -  A version of the caduseus

Sun Disc inside The Washington Monument

Inside the base of The Washington Monument on the eastern side is a winged sun disc.  Two snakes are affixed to the disc with a six pointed star over a relief of George Washington, a well known freemason.  Various groups such as freemasonry, theosophy, rosicrucians and unity church have all used the symbol.

The winged sun is a symbol associated with divinity, royalty and power in the Ancient Near East (Egypt, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and Persia).  The symbol has also been found in the records of ancient cultures residing in various regions of South America as well as Australia.

In ancient egypt the winged disk was a combined emblem of the sun, a double-headed cobra and eagle or vulture wings.  In the following quote from Morals and Dogma, Albert Pike explains that knowledge of astronomy was symbolised (hidden in plane sight from the uninitiated) by the ancient mysteries:

Winged sun disc above the masonic temple entrance at Port Adelaid, South Australia

A brief summary of the Egyptian legend will serve to show the leading idea on which the Mysteries among the Hebrews were based. Osiris, said to have been an ancient King of Egypt, was the Sun; and Isis, his wife, the Moon: and his history recounts, in poetical and figurative style, the annual journey of the Great Luminary of Heaven through the different Signs of the Zodiac. [8]

The Sun  - A Universal Deity and Symbol of Knowledge

Osiris is given bynames such as Lord of the Sky and Life of the (sun god) Ra. Ra traveled across the sky during the day and through the underworld at night. This tomb painting of the 1200s B.C. shows Ra with a sun disk on his head.


THE adoration of the sun was one of the earliest and most natural forms of religious expression.  Complex modern theologies are merely involvements and amplifications of this simple aboriginal belief.  The primitive mind, recognizing the beneficent power of the solar orb, adored it as the proxy of the Supreme Deity. Concerning the origin of sun worship, Albert Pike makes the following concise statement in his Morals and Dogma: "To them [aboriginal peoples] he [the sun] was the innate fire of bodies, the fire of Nature. Author of Life, heat, and ignition, he was to them the efficient cause of all generation, for without him there was no movement, no existence, no form. He was to them immense, indivisible, imperishable, and everywhere present. It was their need of light, and of his creative energy, that was felt by all men; and nothing was more fearful to them than his absence. His beneficent influences caused his identification with the Principle of Good; and the BRAHMA of the Hindus, and MITHRAS of the Persians, and ATHOM, AMUN, PHTHA, and OSIRIS, of the Egyptians, the BEL of the Chaldeans, the ADONAI of the Phoenicians, the ADONIS and APOLLO of the Greeks, became but personifications of the Sun, the regenerating Principle, image of that fecundity which perpetuates and rejuvenates the world's existence." [8]

Top left in the collection of images below is the zodiac through which the sun journeys each year.  To the right of the zodiac are a pair of sun crosses, which are derived directly from the cross formed by joining soltices and equinoxes and the ring formed by the 12 signs of the zodiac; christianity has astrotheology at its core.   Below are two examples of sun rise symbology used by Obama (complete with a halo of pentagrams) and the Lucis (previously Lucifer) Trust; between them is a masonic all seeing eye (see below) at the heart of the sun at Aachen Cathedral in Germany.  The esoteric meaning of the sun as a symbol of knowledge is discussed under 'Fire' below.

Sun symbology

Pyramids - Claimed Egyptian Heritage and Structured Hierarchies

The US dollar bill features a pyramid, which is on the reverse side of the Great Seal of the United States.  The detached cap stone of the pyramid features an all seeing eye.  Above the pyramid is written  ANNUIT COEPTUS, which means He Approves of the Undertakings, under the pyramid is written NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM, which means New Order of the Ages.

US Dollar Bill


In his classic book, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, Manly P. Hall writes:

"European mysticism was not dead at the time the United States of America was founded.  The hand of the Mysteries controlled in the establishment of the new government, for the signature of the Mysteries may still be seen on the Great Seal of the United States of America. Careful analysis of the seal discloses a mass of occult and Masonic symbols... In his sketch of The History of the Seal of the United States, Gaillard Hunt unwittingly brings forward much material to substantiate the belief that the original seal carried the Phoenix bird on its obverse surface and the Great Pyramid of Gizeh upon its reverse surface." [9]

Fundamental Laws - A Report on the 68th Convocation of The Rose Cross Order includes a whole chapter on the Great Seal of the United States.  The introduction to that chapter includes the following paragraph:

"More than a year ago, Grace K. Morey, the author of the article "The Great Seal of the United States and Its Mystic Significance," prepared a sketch for a short primer of the Illuminati teachings, and in this sketch, as will be shown by the drawings, it was brought out that man is not only a threefold being, but that he is actually a four-fold being as well.  In short that when he has succeeded in reaching Soul Illumination, he is the completed Pyramid or true Triangle." [10]

The layered pyramid symbolises the progression of initiates through the degrees of deception to 'enlightenment' at the top.  It may also be thought of as a representation of an all knowing elite watching over the popultaion as depicted rather obviously below.  This is the logo for a new Orwellian DARPA division, "Total Information Awareness."  When the logo and the office became public, outrage led to DARPA's saying they were canceling the project.

For those who have eyes to see, the Illuminati rule over Hollywood was demonstrated by Madonna in the 1985 film Desperately Seeking Susan by wearing the pyramid on the back of her jacket.

The Illuminati Pyramid - DARPA and Madonna


All Seeing Eye - All Knowing Illuminati Watching Over The People

Masonic Eye Of Providence

Today, the Eye of Providence is usually associated with Freemasonry.  The Eye first appeared as part of the standard Iconography of the Freemasons in 1797, with the publication of Thomas Smith's Freemasons Monitor [6].  The exoteric meaning is that it represents the all-seeing eye of God and is a reminder that a Mason's thoughts and deeds are always observed by God (who is referred to in Masonry as the Great Architect of the Universe).  The esoteric meaning is very likely a symbol of the Illuminati watching over the people seeing all because they know all (the all seeing eye).

Typically, the Masonic Eye of Providence has a semi-circular glory below the eye. Sometimes the Eye is enclosed by a triangle (as in the pyramid examples above).  In popular culture today we a single eye often displayed to symbolise Illuminati control.

Eye of Horus

Forerunner to the eye of Providence is The Eye of Horus, an ancient Egyptian symbol the exoteric meaning of which  is protection, royal power and good health.  The eye is personified in the goddess Wadjet (also written as Wedjat, Uadjet, Wedjoyet, Edjo or Uto and as The Eye of Ra) or "Udjat".  The name Wadjet is derived from "wadj" meaning "green" hence "the green one" and was known to the Greeks and Romans as "uraeus" from the Egyptian "iaret" meaning "risen one" from the image of a cobra rising up in protection [7]. Risen one may also refer to one who has risen after symboloic death in mystery school initiation.  The esoteric meaning of the Eye of Horus is likely identical to that of the eye of Providence - an all seeing eye.

A single eye is often used in popular culture to designate Illuminati control.  Below is Peter Gabriel showing how many different ways his 'people' thought of to cover one eye.

Peter Gabriel's All Seeing Eye

Pheonix (also Eagle) - Order Out of Chaos

Economist forecast, 9 January, 1988, for a world currency by 2018

On 9 January 1988 , Rothschild magazine The Economist ran a front cover design (left) depicting a phoenix/eagle wearing a fleur de lis crown and a "10 Phoenix" coin medalion dated 2018.  The editorial headline read:

Get Ready for the Phoenix. (government and businessmen are growing tired of floating exchange rates)

Manly P. Hall, The Phoenix: The Secret Teachings of all Ages, writes:

"The phoenix was regarded as sacred to the sun, and the length of its life (500 to 1000 years) was taken as a standard for measuring the motion of the heavenly bodies and also the cycles of time used in the Mysteries to designate the periods of existence... Modern Masons should realize the special Masonic significance of the phoenix, for the bird is described as using sprigs of acacia in the manufacture of its nest.

The phoenix (which is the mythological Persian roc) is also the name of a Southern constellation, and therefore it has both an astronomical and an astrological significance.  In all probability, the phoenix was the swan of the Greeks, the eagle of the Romans, and the peacock of the Far East. To the ancient mystics the phoenix was a most appropriate symbol of the immortality of the human soul, for just as the phoenix was reborn out of its own dead self seven times seven, so again and again the spiritual nature of man rises triumphant from his dead physical body." [9]

The double-headed eagle, the chief symbol of Scottish Rite of Feemasonry is located on all the outside corners of the House of the Temple in Washington D.C.  The crown represents the 33 degree.  In freemansonry the double headed bird is sometimes associated with the latin expression "ordo ab chao" ("order from chaos").  Other secret orders employ the same mystery school symbology as seen in the Knights of Malta badge below.

The double headed phoenix (eagle) seen left,on the Scottish Rite House of the Temple in Washinton D.C. Middle, with the masonic phrase 'ordo ab chao' and left, as a Knights of Malta symbol

Prometheus Torch (Light, Fire) - Symbol Knowledge

Olympic Torch

"The worship of light, either in its pure essence or in the forms of sun-worship and fire-worship, because the sun and the fire were causes of light, was among the earliest and most universal superstitions of the world.  Light was considered as the primordial source of all that was holy and intelligent; and darkness, as its opposite was viewed as but another name for evil and ignorance" [11]

The above quote is from Freemason Albert G. Mackey's The Symbolism of Freemasonry: Illustrating and Explaining Its Science Myths and Symbols.  Of course, for the Illuminati, fire is symbolic of their own secret knowledge, which only initiates of the secret societies are supposed to know.  Such abstract concepts represented by symbols are supposed to be too difficult for the common man to comprehend.

The mythical Greek character Promethus, who stole fire from the Zeus is a heroic figure in the mystery school religion of the Illuminati.  Prometheus symbology is a favourite at the Olympics.

The Statue of Liberty is another torch bearer and the cornerstone of the pedestal was laid by freemasons as commemorated by the plaque below.

The Statue of Liberty holds a flaming torch, which is a symbol of knowledge for the members of the secret society who laid the cornerstone

Pentagram - Symbol of Many Meanings

Logo of The Deborah Grand Chapter Order of Eastern Star

The Order of the Eastern Star logo is an inverted pentagram and The Debprah Grand Chapter of Pennsylvania surround theirs with a pentagon.  Other chapters use variations on the theme by surrounding their pentagram with squares or circles.  The symbol's central pentagon is often inverted also.

The following is taken directly from the order's website:

"The stated purposes of the organization are:  Charitable, Educational, Fraternal and Scientific; but there is much more to it than that.  Dr. Rob Morris, the Poet Laureate of Masonry, founded the Order using the beautiful and inspiring Biblical examples of heroic conduct and moral values.  These portray the noble principles which should adorn the personal lives of Eastern Star members.  Eastern Star strives to take good people and through uplifting and elevating associations of love and service, and through precept and example build an Order which is truly dedicated to charity, truth and loving kindness."

Pentagon and pentagram in the street map of Washington DC at the White House

The influential writer Eliphas Levi called the Penatgram evil whenever the symbol appeared the other way up. -"A reversed pentagram, with two points projecting upwards, is a symbol of evil and attracts sinister forces because it overturns the proper order of things and demonstrates the triumph of matter over spirit. It is the goat of lust attacking the heavens with its horns, a sign execrated by initiates." [12]-A north-up view of the  street map of Washington DC includes an inverted pentagram with the southern point located at the White House.  The pentagram is surrounded by a pentagon.  One element of each shape is missing as indicated by the yellow lines in the photograph on the left.-In respect of the pentagram symbolsing the negative, Freemason Manly P. Hall writes "the star may be broken at one point by not permitting the converging lines to touch; it may be inverted by having one point down and two up; it may be distorted by having the points of varying lengths. When used in black magic, the pentagram is called the "sign of the cloven hoof, or the footprint of the Devil." [9]  Hall's observations describe exactly the Washington D.C. street plan pentagram which is broken at one point and displays an elongated east-west element.

Hexagram - The Seal of Solomon

The Lodge of Edinburgh (Mary's Chapel) No. 1 Symbolic Diagram

The hexagram, one of the world's most ancient symbols, is featured within and on the outside of many Masonic temples as a decoration. It may have been found within the structures of King Solomon's temple (which has never been found), from which Freemasons are inspired in their philosophies and studies.

The Seal of Solomon or the Shield of David, for under both names the same thing was denoted, is a hexagonal figure consisting of two interlaced triangles, thus forming the outlines of six-pointed star. Upon it was inscribed one of the sacred names of God, from which inscription it was opposed principally to derive its talismanic powers.

In time, with the progress of the new religion, it ceased to be invested with a magical reputation, although the Hermetic philosophers of the Middle Ages did employ it as one of their mystical symbols; but true to the theory that superstitions may be repudiated but never will be forgotten, it was adopted by the Christians as

Washington D.C. street plan hexagram

one of the emblems of their faith, but with varying interpretations. The two triangles were said sometimes to be symbols of fire and water, sometimes of prayer and remission, sometimes of creation and redemption, or of life and death, or of resurrection and judgment. But at length the ecclesiologists seem to have settled on the idea that the figure should be considered as representing the two natures of our Lord-His Divine and His human nature.[10]

The  street map of Washington DC includes a hexagram at the White House, which shares some elements with the aforementioned pentagram.  Again one element of the shape is missing as indictated in yellow on the photograph and the symbol is distorted by being elongated in the east-west direction.


  1. The Grand Lodge of British Columbia and Yukon http://freemasonry.bcy.ca/history/bavarian_illuminati/das_verb.htmtml
  2. Charles W. Snell, A Brief History of the Washington Monument and Grounds 1783 to 1978, 1978 http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/wamo/wamo_history.pdf
  3. Wikipedia, Caduceus, 22 March 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caduceus
  4. Wikipedia, Hermeticism, 22 March 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermeticism
  5. Wikipedia, Kundalini, 22 march 2013, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kundalini
  6. Wikipedia, Eye of Providence, 6 May 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eye_of_Providence
  7. Wikipedia, Eye of Horus, 6 May 2012, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eye_of_Horus
  8. Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry, prepared for the Supreme Council of the Thirty Third Degree for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States: Charleston, 1871.  http://www.drawaline.org/Albert_Pike_-_Morals_and_Dogma.pdf
  9. Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages, 1928. http://sandiego.indymedia.org/media/2007/02/125048.pdf
  10. Fundamental Laws - A Report on the 68th Convocation of The Rose Cross Order, 1916.  http://books.google.com/books/about/Fundamental_laws.html?id=H-UNAAAAYAAJ
  11. Albert G. Mackey, The Symbolism of Freemasonry: Illustrating and Explaining Its Science Myths and Symbols, 1882.  http://books.google.com/books/about/The_symbolism_of_Freemasonry.html?id=KV9oAAAACAAJ
  12. Eliphas Levi, Transcendental Magic, its Doctrine and Ritual, 1855.  http://www.hermetics.org/pdf/magic/DogmaEtRituel_Part_I.pdf